Electrotherapy Circuits therefor


  • CPC
  • A61N1/00
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A61N1/02Details A61N1/025Digital circuitry features of electrotherapy devices A61N1/04Electrodes A61N1/0404for external use A61N1/0408Use-related aspects A61N1/0412Specially adapted for transcutaneous electroporation A61N1/0416Anode and cathode A61N1/042Material of the electrode A61N1/0424Shape of the electrode A61N1/0428Specially adapted for iontophoresis A61N1/0432Anode and cathode A61N1/0436Material of the electrode A61N1/044Shape of the electrode A61N1/0444Membrane A61N1/0448Drug reservoir A61N1/0452Specially adapted for transcutaneous muscle stimulation [TMS] A61N1/0456Specially adapted for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation [TENS] A61N1/046Specially adapted for shock therapy A61N1/0464Specially adapted for promoting tissue growth A61N1/0468Specially adapted for promoting wound healing A61N1/0472Structure-related aspects A61N1/0476Array electrodes (including any electrode arrangement with more than one electrode for at least one of the polarities) A61N1/048Electrodes characterised by a specific connection between lead and electrode A61N1/0484Garment electrodes worn by the patient A61N1/0488Details about the lead A61N1/0492Patch electrodes A61N1/0496characterised by using specific chemical compositions A61N1/05for implantation or insertion into the body A61N1/0502Skin piercing electrodes A61N1/0504Subcutaneous electrodes A61N1/0507Electrodes for the digestive system A61N1/0509Stomach and intestinal electrodes A61N1/0512Anal electrodes A61N1/0514Electrodes for the urinary tract A61N1/0517Esophageal electrodes A61N1/0519Endotracheal electrodes A61N1/0521Genital electrodes A61N1/0524Vaginal electrodes A61N1/0526Head electrodes A61N1/0529Electrodes for brain stimulation A61N1/0531Brain cortex electrodes A61N1/0534Electrodes for deep brain stimulation A61N1/0536Preventing neurodegenerative response or inflammatory reaction A61N1/0539Anchoring of brain electrode systems A61N1/0541Cochlear electrodes A61N1/0543Retinal electrodes A61N1/0546Nasal electrodes A61N1/0548Oral electrodes A61N1/0551Spinal or peripheral nerve electrodes A61N1/0553Paddle shaped electrodes A61N1/0556Cuff electrodes A61N1/0558Anchoring or fixation means therefor A61N1/056Transvascular endocardial electrode systems A61N1/0563specially adapted for defibrillation or cardioversion A61N1/0565Electrode heads A61N1/0568with drug delivery A61N1/057Anchoring means; Means for fixing the head inside the heart A61N1/0573chacterised by means penetrating the heart tissue A61N1/0575with drug delivery A61N1/0587Epicardial electrode systems; Endocardial electrodes piercing the pericardium A61N1/059Anchoring means A61N1/0592Introducing the lead through the pericardium with a needle A61N1/0595Temporary leads A61N1/0597Surface area electrodes A61N1/06for high-frequency therapy A61N1/08Arrangements or circuits for monitoring, protecting, controlling or indicating A61N1/10Applying static electricity A61N1/14Leading-off electric charges A61N1/16Screening or neutralising undesirable influences from or using, atmospheric or terrestrial radiation or fields A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes A61N1/20continuous direct currents A61N1/205for promoting a biological process A61N1/22Electromedical belts A61N1/24with built-in power source A61N1/26Electromedical brushes Electromedical massage devices ; Combs A61N1/28Apparatus for applying thermoelectric currents A61N1/30Apparatus for iontophoresis A61N1/303Constructional details A61N1/306Arrangements where at least part of the apparatus is introduced into the body A61N1/32alternating or intermittent currents A61N1/321Electromedical belts A61N1/322Electromedical brushes, combs, massage devices A61N1/323Interference currents A61N1/325for iontophoresis A61N1/326for promoting growth of cells A61N1/327for enhancing the absorption properties of tissue A61N1/328for improving the appearance of the skin A61N1/36for stimulation A61N1/36003of motor muscles A61N1/36007of urogenital or gastrointestinal organs A61N1/3601of respiratory organs A61N1/36014External stimulators A61N1/36017with leads or electrodes penetrating the skin A61N1/36021for treatment of pain A61N1/36025for treating a mental or cerebral condition A61N1/36028for aversion therapy A61N1/36032of the outer, middle or inner ear A61N1/36035for correcting spinal deformities A61N1/36042of grafted tissue A61N1/36046of the eye A61N1/3605Implantable neurostimulators for stimulating central or peripheral nerve system A61N1/36053adapted for vagal stimulation A61N1/36057adapted for stimulating afferent nerves A61N1/3606adapted for a particular treatment A61N1/36064Epilepsy A61N1/36067Movement disorders A61N1/36071Pain A61N1/36075Headache, migraine A61N1/36078Inducing or controlling sleep, relaxation A61N1/36082Cognitive or psychiatric applications A61N1/36085Eating disorders and obesity A61N1/36089Addiction, withdrawal from substance abuse such as alcohol, drugs A61N1/36092Mental training A61N1/36096Mood disorders A61N1/361Phantom sensations A61N1/36103Neurorehabilitation; repair and reorganisation of neural tissue A61N1/36107Sexual dysfunction A61N1/3611Respiration control A61N1/36114Cardiac control A61N1/36117for treating hypertension A61N1/36121Production of neurotransmitters; modulation of gene expression A61N1/36125Details of circuitry or electric components A61N1/36128Control systems A61N1/36132using patient feedback A61N1/36135using a physiological parameter A61N1/36139with automatic adjustment A61N1/36142for improving safety A61N1/36146specified by the stimulation parameters A61N1/3615Intensity A61N1/36153Voltage A61N1/36157Current A61N1/3616Voltage density or current density A61N1/36164Subthreshold, non-excitatory signals A61N1/36167Timing A61N1/36171Frequency A61N1/36175Pulse width and/or duty cycle A61N1/36178Burst or pulse train parameters A61N1/36182Direction of the electrical field A61N1/36185Selection of the electrode configuration A61N1/36189using a modulation technique A61N1/36192Amplitude modulation A61N1/36196Frequency modulation A61N1/362Heart stimulators A61N1/3621for treating or preventing abnormally high heart rate A61N1/3622comprising two or more electrodes co-operating with different heart regions A61N1/3624occurring in the atrium A61N1/3625External stimulators A61N1/3627for treating a mechanical deficiency of the heart A61N1/3628using subthreshold, non-excitatory signals A61N1/365controlled by a physiological parameter A61N1/36507controlled by gradient or slope of the heart potential A61N1/36514controlled by a physiological quantity other than heart potential A61N1/36521the parameter being derivable from measurement of an electrical impedance A61N1/36528the parameter being measured by means of ultrasound A61N1/36535controlled by body position or posture A61N1/36542controlled by body motion A61N1/3655controlled by body or blood temperature A61N1/36557controlled by chemical substances in blood A61N1/36564controlled by blood pressure A61N1/36571controlled by blood flow rate A61N1/36578controlled by mechanical motion of the heart wall A61N1/36585controlled by two or more physical parameters A61N1/36592controlled by the heart rate variability A61N1/368comprising more than one electrode co-operating with different heart regions A61N1/3682with a variable atrioventricular delay A61N1/3684for stimulating the heart at multiple sites of the ventricle or the atrium A61N1/3686configured for selecting the electrode configuration on a lead A61N1/3688configured for switching the pacing mode A61N1/37Monitoring Protecting A61N1/3702a physiological parameter A61N1/3704Circuits specially adapted therefor A61N1/3706a pacemaker parameter A61N1/3708for power depletion A61N1/371Capture A61N1/3712Autocapture A61N1/3714Atrial capture A61N1/3716with reduction of residual polarisation effects A61N1/3718Monitoring of or protection against external electromagnetic fields or currents A61N1/372Arrangements in connection with the implantation of stimulators A61N1/37205Microstimulators A61N1/37211Means for communicating with stimulators A61N1/37217characterised by the communication link A61N1/37223Circuits for electromagnetic coupling A61N1/37229Shape or location of the implanted or external antenna A61N1/37235Aspects of the external programmer A61N1/37241providing test stimulations A61N1/37247User interface A61N1/37252Details of algorithms or data aspects of communicaton system A61N1/37258Alerting the patient A61N1/37264Changing the program; Upgrading firmware A61N1/3727characterised by the modulation technique A61N1/37276characterised by means for reducing power consumption during telemetry A61N1/37282characterised by communication with experts in remote locations using a network A61N1/37288Communication to several implantable medical devices within one patient A61N1/375Constructional arrangements A61N1/3752Details of casing-lead connections A61N1/3754Feedthroughs A61N1/3756Casings with electrodes thereon A61N1/3758Packaging of the components within the casing A61N1/378Electrical supply A61N1/3782producing a voltage above the power source level A61N1/3785generated by biological activity or substance A61N1/3787from an external energy source A61N1/38for producing shock effects A61N1/385Devices for inducing an abnormal cardiac function A61N1/39Heart defibrillators A61N1/3906characterised by the form of the shockwave A61N1/3912Output circuitry therefor A61N1/3918characterised by shock pathway A61N1/3925Monitoring; Protecting A61N1/3931Protecting A61N1/3937Monitoring output parameters A61N1/3943for threshold determination A61N1/395for treating atrial fibrillation A61N1/3956Implantable devices for applying electric shocks to the heart A61N1/3962in combination with another heart therapy A61N1/3968Constructional arrangements A61N1/3975Power supply A61N1/3981High voltage charging circuitry A61N1/3987characterised by the timing or triggering of the shock A61N1/3993User interfaces for automatic external defibrillators A61N1/40Applying electric fields by inductive or capacitive coupling; Applying radio-frequency signals A61N1/403for thermotherapy A61N1/406using implantable thermoseeds or injected particles for localized hyperthermia A61N1/44Applying ionised fluids A61N1/445Hydro-electric baths