Fuel cells Manufacture thereof


  • CPC
  • H01M8/00
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H01M8/002Shape, form of a fuel cell H01M8/004Cylindrical, tubular or wound H01M8/006Flat H01M8/008Disposal or recycling of fuel cells H01M8/02Details H01M8/0202Collectors Separators H01M8/0204Non-porous and characterised by the material H01M8/0206Metals or alloys H01M8/0208Alloys H01M8/021Alloys based on iron H01M8/0213Gas-impermeable carbon-containing materials H01M8/0215Glass Ceramic materials H01M8/0217Complex oxides, optionally doped, of the type AMO3, A being an alkaline earth metal or rare earth metal and M being a metal H01M8/0219Chromium complex oxides H01M8/0221Organic resins Organic polymers H01M8/0223Composites H01M8/0226in the form of mixtures H01M8/0228in the form of layered or coated products H01M8/023Porous and characterised by the material H01M8/0232Metals or alloys H01M8/0234Carbonaceous material H01M8/0236Glass Ceramics Cermets H01M8/0239Organic resins Organic polymers H01M8/0241Composites H01M8/0243in the form of mixtures H01M8/0245in the form of layered or coated products H01M8/0247characterised by the form H01M8/025semicylindrical H01M8/0252tubular H01M8/0254corrugated or undulated H01M8/0256Vias H01M8/0258characterised by the configuration of channels H01M8/026characterised by grooves H01M8/0263having meandering or serpentine paths H01M8/0265the reactant or coolant channels having varying cross sections H01M8/0267having heating or cooling means H01M8/0269Separators, collectors or interconnectors including a printed circuit board H01M8/0271Sealing or supporting means around electrodes, matrices or membranes H01M8/0273with sealing or supporting means in the form of a frame H01M8/0276Sealing means characterised by their form H01M8/0278O-rings H01M8/028Sealing means characterised by their material H01M8/0282Inorganic material H01M8/0284Organic resins Organic polymers H01M8/0286Processes for forming seals H01M8/0289Means for holding the electrolyte H01M8/0293Matrices for immobilising electrolyte solutions H01M8/0295Matrices for immobilising electrolyte melts H01M8/0297Arrangements for joining electrodes, reservoir layers, heat exchange units or bipolar separators to each other H01M8/04Auxiliary arrangements H01M8/04007related to heat exchange H01M8/04014Heat exchange using gaseous fluids Heat exchange by combustion of reactants H01M8/04022Heating by combustion H01M8/04029Heat exchange using liquids H01M8/04037Electrical heating H01M8/04044Purification of heat exchange media H01M8/04052Storage of heat in the fuel cell system H01M8/04059Evaporative processes for the cooling of a fuel cell H01M8/04067Heat exchange or temperature measuring elements, thermal insulation H01M8/04074Heat exchange unit structures specially adapted for fuel cell H01M8/04082Arrangements for control of reactant parameters H01M8/04089of gaseous reactants H01M8/04097with recycling of the reactants H01M8/04104Regulation of differential pressures H01M8/04111using a compressor turbine assembly H01M8/04119with simultaneous supply or evacuation of electrolyte Humidifying or dehumidifying H01M8/04126Humidifying H01M8/04134by coolants H01M8/04141by water containing exhaust gases H01M8/04149by diffusion H01M8/04156with product water removal H01M8/04164by condensers, gas-liquid separators or filters H01M8/04171using adsorbents, wicks or hydrophilic material H01M8/04179by purging or increasing flow or pressure of reactants H01M8/04186of liquid-charged or electrolyte-charged reactants H01M8/04194Concentration measuring cells H01M8/04197Preventing means for fuel crossover H01M8/04201Reactant storage and supply H01M8/04208Cartridges, cryogenic media or cryogenic reservoirs H01M8/04216characterised by the choice for a specific material H01M8/04223during start-up or shut-down Depolarisation or activation H01M8/04225during start-up H01M8/04228during shut-down H01M8/04231Purging of the reactants H01M8/04238Depolarisation H01M8/04246Short circuiting means for defective fuel cells H01M8/04253Means for solving freezing problems H01M8/04268Heating of fuel cells during the start-up of the fuel cells H01M8/04276Arrangements for managing the electrolyte stream H01M8/04283Supply means of electrolyte to or in matrix-fuel cells H01M8/04291Arrangements for managing water in solid electrolyte fuel cell systems H01M8/04298Processes for controlling fuel cells or fuel cell systems H01M8/043applied during specific periods H01M8/04302applied during start-up H01M8/04303applied during shut-down H01M8/04305Modeling, demonstration models of fuel cells H01M8/04313characterised by the detection or assessment of variables characterised by the detection or assessment of failure or abnormal function H01M8/0432Temperature Ambient temperature H01M8/04328of anode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04335of cathode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04343of anode exhausts H01M8/0435of cathode exhausts H01M8/04358of the coolant H01M8/04365of other components of a fuel cell or fuel cell stacks H01M8/04373of auxiliary devices H01M8/0438Pressure Ambient pressure Flow H01M8/04388of anode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04395of cathode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04402of anode exhausts H01M8/0441of cathode exhausts H01M8/04417of the coolant H01M8/04425at auxiliary devices H01M8/04432Pressure differences H01M8/0444Concentration Density H01M8/04447of anode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04455of cathode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04462of anode exhausts H01M8/0447of cathode exhausts H01M8/04477of the electrolyte H01M8/04485of the coolant H01M8/04492Humidity Ambient humidity Water content H01M8/045of anode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04507of cathode reactants at the inlet or inside the fuel cell H01M8/04514of anode exhausts H01M8/04522of cathode exhausts H01M8/04529of the electrolyte H01M8/04537Electric variables H01M8/04544Voltage H01M8/04552of the individual fuel cell H01M8/04559of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04567of auxiliary devices H01M8/04574Current H01M8/04582of the individual fuel cell H01M8/04589of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04597of auxiliary devices H01M8/04604Power, energy, capacity or load H01M8/04611of the individual fuel cell H01M8/04619of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04626of auxiliary devices H01M8/04634Other electric variables H01M8/04641of the individual fuel cell H01M8/04649of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04656of auxiliary devices H01M8/04664Failure or abnormal function H01M8/04671of the individual fuel cell H01M8/04679of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04686of auxiliary devices H01M8/04694characterised by variables to be controlled H01M8/04701Temperature H01M8/04708of fuel cell reactants H01M8/04716of fuel cell exhausts H01M8/04723of the coolant H01M8/04731of other components of a fuel cell or fuel cell stacks H01M8/04738of auxiliary devices H01M8/04746Pressure Flow H01M8/04753of fuel cell reactants H01M8/04761of fuel cell exhausts H01M8/04768of the coolant H01M8/04776at auxiliary devices H01M8/04783Pressure differences H01M8/04791Concentration Density H01M8/04798of fuel cell reactants H01M8/04805of fuel cell exhausts H01M8/04813of the coolant H01M8/0482of the electrolyte H01M8/04828Humidity Water content H01M8/04835of fuel cell reactants H01M8/04843of fuel cell exhausts H01M8/0485of the electrolyte H01M8/04858Electric variables H01M8/04865Voltage H01M8/04873of the individual fuel cell H01M8/0488of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04888of auxiliary devices H01M8/04895Current H01M8/04902of the individual fuel cell H01M8/0491of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04917of auxiliary devices H01M8/04925Power, energy, capacity or load H01M8/04932of the individual fuel cell H01M8/0494of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04947of auxiliary devices H01M8/04949other electric variables H01M8/04951of the individual fuel cell H01M8/04952of fuel cell stacks H01M8/04953of auxiliary devices H01M8/04955Shut-off or shut-down of fuel cells H01M8/04992characterised by the implementation of mathematical or computational algorithms H01M8/06Combination of fuel cells with means for production of reactants or for treatment of residues H01M8/0606with means for production of gaseous reactants H01M8/0612from carbon-containing material H01M8/0618Reforming processes H01M8/0625in a modular combined reactor/fuel cell structure H01M8/0631Reactor construction specially adapted for combination reactor/fuel cell H01M8/0637Direct internal reforming at the anode of the fuel cell H01M8/0643Gasification of solid fuel H01M8/065by dissolution of metals or alloys by dehydriding metallic substances H01M8/0656by electrochemical means H01M8/0662Treatment of gaseous reactants or gaseous residues H01M8/0668Removal of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide H01M8/0675Removal of sulfur H01M8/0681Reactant purification by the use of electrochemical cells H01M8/0687Reactant purification by the use of membranes or filters H01M8/0693Treatment of the electrolyte residue H01M8/08Fuel cells with aqueous electrolytes H01M8/083Alkaline fuel cells H01M8/086Phosphoric acid fuel cells [PAFC] H01M8/10Fuel cells with solid electrolytes H01M8/1004characterised by membrane-electrode assemblies [MEA] H01M8/1006Corrugated, curved or wave-shaped MEA H01M8/1007with both reactants being gaseous or vaporised H01M8/1009with one of the reactants being liquid, solid or liquid-charged H01M8/1011Direct alcohol fuel cells [DAFC] H01M8/1013Other direct alcohol fuel cells [DAFC] H01M8/1016characterised by the electrolyte material H01M8/1018Polymeric electrolyte materials H01M8/102characterised by the chemical structure of the main chain of the ion-conducting polymer H01M8/1023having only carbon H01M8/1025having only carbon and oxygen H01M8/1027having carbon, oxygen and other atoms H01M8/103having nitrogen H01M8/1032having sulfur H01M8/1034having phosphorus H01M8/1037having silicon H01M8/1039halogenated H01M8/1041Polymer electrolyte composites, mixtures or blends H01M8/1044Mixtures of polymers, of which at least one is ionically conductive H01M8/1046Mixtures of at least one polymer and at least one additive H01M8/1048Ion-conducting additives H01M8/1051Non-ion-conducting additives H01M8/1053consisting of layers of polymers with at least one layer being ionically conductive H01M8/1055Inorganic layers on the polymer electrolytes H01M8/1058characterised by a porous support having no ion-conducting properties H01M8/106characterised by the chemical composition of the porous support H01M8/1062characterised by the physical properties of the porous support H01M8/1065characterised by the form H01M8/1067characterised by their physical properties H01M8/1069characterised by the manufacturing processes H01M8/1072by chemical reactions H01M8/1074Sol-gel processes H01M8/1076Micromachining techniques H01M8/1079Inducing porosity into non porous precursors membranes H01M8/1081starting from solutions, dispersions or slurries exclusively of polymers H01M8/1083Starting from polymer melts other than monomer melts H01M8/1086After-treatment of the membrane other than by polymerisation H01M8/1088Chemical modification H01M8/109thermal other than drying H01M8/1093mechanical H01M8/1097Fuel cells applied on a support H01M8/12operating at high temperature H01M8/1213characterised by the electrode/electrolyte combination or the supporting material H01M8/122Corrugated, curved or wave-shaped MEA H01M8/1226characterised by the supporting layer H01M8/1231with both reactants being gaseous or vaporised H01M8/1233with one of the reactants being liquid, solid or liquid-charged H01M8/124characterised by the process of manufacturing or by the material of the electrolyte H01M8/1246the electrolyte consisting of oxides H01M8/1253the electrolyte containing zirconium oxide H01M8/126the electrolyte containing cerium oxide H01M8/1266the electrolyte containing bismuth oxide H01M8/1273Fuel cells with solid halide electrolytes H01M8/1286Fuel cells applied on a support H01M8/14Fuel cells with fused electrolytes H01M8/141the anode and the cathode being gas-permeable electrodes or electrode layers H01M8/142with matrix-supported or semi-solid matrix-reinforced electrolyte H01M8/143with liquid, solid or electrolyte-charged reactants H01M8/144characterised by the electrolyte material H01M8/145comprising carbonates H01M8/146Fuel cells with molten hydroxide H01M8/148Measures, other than selecting a specific electrode material, to reduce electrode dissolution H01M8/16Biochemical fuel cells H01M8/18Regenerative fuel cells H01M8/182Regeneration by thermal means H01M8/184Regeneration by electrochemical means H01M8/186by electrolytic decomposition of the electrolytic solution or the formed water product H01M8/188by recharging of redox couples containing fluids; Redox flow type batteries H01M8/20Indirect fuel cells H01M8/22Fuel cells in which the fuel is based on materials comprising carbon or oxygen or hydrogen and other elements Fuel cells in which the fuel is based on materials comprising only elements other than carbon, oxygen or hydrogen H01M8/222Fuel cells in which the fuel is based on compounds containing nitrogen H01M8/225Fuel cells in which the fuel is based on materials comprising particulate active material in the form of a suspension, a dispersion, a fluidised bed or a paste H01M8/227Dialytic cells or batteries; Reverse electrodialysis cells or batteries H01M8/24Grouping of fuel cells H01M8/2404Processes or apparatus for grouping fuel cells H01M8/2405comprising spaced diffusion electrodes or electrode layers with interposed electrolyte layer or electrolyte compartment H01M8/241with solid or matrix-supported electrolytes H01M8/2415External manifolded battery stock H01M8/2418Grouping by arranging unit cells in a plane H01M8/242comprising framed electrodes or intermediary frame-like gaskets H01M8/2425High-temperature cells with solid electrolytes H01M8/2428Grouping by arranging unit cells on a surface of any form H01M8/243Grouping of unit cells of tubular or cylindrical configuration H01M8/2432Grouping of unit cells of planar configuration H01M8/2435with monolithic core structure H01M8/244with matrix-supported molten electrolyte H01M8/2445comprising spaced diffusion electrodes or electrode layers with interposed electrolyte compartment with possible electrolyte supply or circulation H01M8/245comprising framed electrodes or intermediary frame-like gaskets H01M8/2455with liquid, solid or electrolyte-charged reactants H01M8/2457with both reactants being gaseous or vaporised H01M8/2459Comprising electrode layers with interposed electrolyte compartment with possible electrolyte supply or circulation H01M8/246having liquid, solid or electrolyte-charged reactants with framed electrodes or intermediary frame-like gaskets H01M8/2465Details of groupings of fuel cells H01M8/247Arrangements for tightening a stack, for accommodation of a stack in a tank or for assembling different tanks H01M8/2475Enclosures, casings or containers of fuel cell stacks H01M8/248Means for compression of the fuel cell stacks H01M8/2483characterised by internal manifolds H01M8/2484characterised by external manifolds H01M8/2485Arrangements for sealing external manifolds Arrangements for mounting external manifolds around a stack H01M8/249comprising two or more groupings of fuel cells H01M8/2495of fuel cells of different types