Many computing devices have connections to mobile networks that supply data services. Cellular telephones have evolved into “smart phones” that run applications, many of which send and receive data through a mobile data network. Concurrently, computing devices have evolved to take on form factors that make them easy for a user to carry. These computing devices also run application that send and receive data through a mobile data network.
As applications executing on mobile computing devices have gotten more powerful and more diverse, the bandwidth on mobile data networks consumed by these applications use has grown. In addition to increases in the number of mobile devices connected to mobile networks and increases in the number of applications available for execution on these mobile devices, data usage has also increased as a result of changes in the way these applications use data. Applications may now consume network bandwidth engaging in functions such as sending and receiving e-mail, streaming music or video to a mobile device or accessing data over the Internet.
In response to the growing usage of network bandwidth, mobile network operators have begun to revisit their policies for charging for network data usage. While, in prior years, it was common for unrestricted data usage to be available for a fixed monthly fee, it is now more prevalent for data networks to be metered. In metered networks charges are imposed based on usage. Though, various charging policies have been proposed.
For example, in a variable charging policy, a charge may be imposed for each unit of data transmitted or received by a mobile device. A variation of a variable charging policy may cap the total fee per month such that, once usage exceeds a threshold, additional charges are not incurred. In a fixed charging policy, a service plan may have a monthly usage cap. Usage up to the cap may be covered by the fixed price, but usage above the cap may be charged as in a variable policy. In a variation on the fixed charging policy, there may be no additional charge for usage one the cap is exceeded, but the network may throttle data transmissions above the cap such that a user who exceeds the cap may experience reduced service.
To enhance an experience for a user of a mobile computing device, current network information indicating a current basis for usage charges may be made available to an application or other user mode component executing on the mobile computing device. The application may then selectively execute network operations, which may include determining whether the network operations should be performed, either with or without modification, based on an impact of the operation on charges the user may incur for data usage. In making this determination, the application may have available information on the importance of completing the operation or completing the operation in a timely way. Accordingly, a cost aware user mode component may trade off cost and importance.
Information on the current basis for usage charges may be made available through an application programming interface presented by a service executing on the mobile computing device. The service may obtain information on a policy for charging for data usage from a mobile network operator. The service may also obtain information on data usage from the mobile network operator, along with values of other parameters that may be used by the application in determining how to selectively execute the network operation. Though, in some embodiments, usage information may be obtained in other ways, such as monitoring network traffic.
The service may obtain information from a server provided by an operator of the mobile network. Such a server may supply information to a mobile computing device, including, for example, a value defining the mobile network operator's policy for charging for data usage and a value indicating an amount of data used by the mobile computing device.
The foregoing is a non-limiting summary of the invention, which is defined by the attached claims.
The accompanying drawings are not intended to be drawn to scale. In the drawings, each identical or nearly identical component that is illustrated in various figures is represented by a like numeral. For purposes of clarity, not every component may be labeled in every drawing. In the drawings:
The Inventors have recognized and appreciated that the onset of new types of charging policies for mobile data usage may be a burden on users of mobile computing devices. Users may misjudge the amount of their accumulated usage over a billing period and inadvertently incur charges for over-cap usage or have their data transmissions throttled. In either event, the user's experience may be degraded, either because of “surprise” charges or because on unexpectedly poor performance of the computing device when attempting operations that entail data transmissions.
Moreover, as mobile applications become more powerful, more applications may autonomously initiate actions that consume network bandwidth. Such operations may be performed in a background mode of operation of the computing device, such that a user may not even be aware that those operations are occurring and consuming network bandwidth. Applications that synchronize with data stores on a network, for example, may periodically exchange data over the network with those data stores. Such applications may include e-mail servers or software update services. Exchanges of information by these applications may occur in background mode without express user input.
To avoid detracting from an experience for a user of a mobile computing device, an operating system may be provided to facilitate cost aware applications. The operating system may provide a service from which applications, and other user-mode components, may obtain current network information, including information that identifies a basis by which usage charges for the network may be computed. This information, for example, may allow an application to determine an impact of a contemplated operation and selectively execute or modify the operation based on the determined impact.
The impact, for example, may be computed as a charge incurred for the specific operation, if performed. Though, other types of impact alternatively or additionally may be computed. These impacts may include an amount of usage as a percentage of a usage cap, or percentage of the amount remaining until the cap is reached, that will be consumed by the operation.
Regardless of the specific format in which the impact is determined, a cost aware application may use this information to determine whether and how network operations that will consume bandwidth will be performed. The application, for example, may determine that the operation is to be immediately executed over a metered network. Alternatively, the application may determine that the operation is to be performed at a later time or deferred until an un-metered or lower cost network is detected. In making such determinations, the cost aware application may take advantage of information that may be available to the application, such as information about the importance of completing the operation or a cost associated with deferring completion.
A service may obtain information from any of a number of sources in order to be able to supply it to a user-mode component. In some embodiments, the information may be obtained from a mobile network operator. The mobile network operator may operate a server for this purpose that makes information available to the service on the mobile computing device. Such information may include, for example, information that identifies a charging policy applicable to the mobile computing device that the mobile network operator uses to compute data charges. Alternatively or additionally, the information may specify prior usage by the computing device. Administrative information may also be available, such as a date on which a measure of cumulative usage toward a cap is reset.
The service may also gather some or all of the information, such as by obtaining usage information through monitoring. For this purpose, the service may incorporate a monitoring component that interfaces to portions of the operating system that manages network communications. The monitoring component, for example, may interface to a network stack. Through such an interface, the monitoring component may obtain usage information relevant to a specific network over which data is transmitted.
Additionally, the monitoring component may obtain information about a user-mode entity associated with data communicated over the network. The monitoring component may record this information in association with any suitable user-mode entity or category of user-mode entities that may be useful in monitoring network usage. For example, the monitoring component may record usage information associated with a specific application or service, user account or type of application.
Alternatively or additionally, a service of a cost aware operating system may determine and enforce a policy related to data usage based on cost-related criteria. Such a policy may specify criteria that, when apply, indicate whether a network operation is to be performed, modified or canceled. These criteria may be based on one or more factors, such as charges that would be incurred by performing an operation, a tag attached to data for transmission by an applicant generating the data or usage limits specified by a user.
Such policy information may be obtained in any suitable way. In some embodiments, the service may provide a user interface through which a user may specify usage limits or other aspects of a data usage policy for specific applications or classes of applications.
To enforce decisions on data usage, one or more enforcement mechanisms may be incorporated in the operating system. Such an enforcement mechanism may be incorporated into a component that establishes network connections at the application level. Such a component may be used to block the creation of a connection or to break down a connection when a user-mode component using that connection violates a data usage policy. Alternatively, enforcement may be through a firewall or similar component, which can be set to block or throttle data packets to or from a user-mode component that is operating outside of a data usage policy applied to that component.
In the example of
In the example of
Base station 126 may include a transmitter/receiver to support communications with mobile computing device 110. This transmitter/receiver is coupled to access network 120, through which communications may be routed to and from Internet 130. In this way, mobile computing device 110 may exchange data with any device or other network reachable through Internet 130 through access network 120.
The mobile network operator that operates access network 120 may impose a charge for using access network 120. The charging policy applied to data transmissions sent from or destined for computing device 110 may depend on any of a number of factors. Those factors may include a specific subscription plan elected by user 112. Other factors may include amounts of data previously communicated through access network 120 for computing device 110 during an applicable charging interval. For example, the charging policy may impose different charges for data usage that exceeds a predetermined threshold during a monthly billing cycle. Though, it should be appreciated that many factors, alternatively or additionally, may be used to determine specific charges that will be incurred for data usage in performing an operation involving transmission of data through access network 120. Different mobile network operators may have different charging policies that weight these factors differently. Some mobile network operators may have different charging policies for different users based on a subscription agreement with those users.
To facilitate control over the operation of computing device 110 in a way that is cost aware, computing device 110 includes a cost aware operating system. Such a cost aware operating system may receive information on a charging policy imposed by the mobile network operator.
The cost aware operating system may obtain information related to the charging policy of the mobile network operator and network data usage, in any of a number of ways. In some embodiments, some or all of this, and possibly other, data cost information used by a cost aware operating system within computing device 110 may come from the mobile network operator. In the embodiment of
Some or all of the data cost information, for example, may be communicated to computing device 110 over a control channel for the mobile broadband network. As a specific example, such information may be communicated over an SMS channel or other suitable control channel. Alternatively, or additionally, server 122 may be coupled directly to Internet 130. Such a connection may allow mobile computing device 110 to obtain data cost information through any other connection mobile computing device 110 may form to Internet 130. For example, user 112 may from time-to-time connect mobile computing device 110 to a wired network through which Internet 130 may be accessed. In such a scenario, some or all of the data cost information may be accessed through that wired connection.
Accordingly, it should be appreciated that the timing and manner in which mobile computing device 110 obtains data cost information is not critical to the invention and any suitable mechanism or combination of mechanisms for obtaining that information may be employed. As a specific example, mobile computing device 110 may obtain charging policy information and information on prior usage in different ways. Policy information, for example, may be loaded into mobile computing device 110 when the device is initially configured to use a mobile broadband network. The charging policy information may be updated from time-to-time when mobile computing device 110 has ready access to Internet 130. Though, information on prior data usage, which may change frequently, may be communicated wirelessly through access network 120. Communication of such dynamically changing information may be initiated by server 122 or by mobile computing device 110.
Regardless of the timing and manner in which data cost information is communicated, the information may be communicated in any suitable format. For example, a mobile network operator may define a format for data cost information records. A cost aware operating system within mobile computing device 110 may be programmed to recognize the format and associate values with specific parameters of the data cost information. Alternatively or additionally, the information may be associated with tags or other identifiers, allowing a cost aware operating system to associate values with specific parameters of data cost information based on the tags associated with the individual values. Accordingly, it should be appreciated that the format in which data cost information is communicated to mobile computing device 110 is not critical to the invention.
Server 122, for example, may be coupled to access network 120, such that data cost information may be communicated wirelessly to computing device 110 through base station 126 in a format similar to a format used to communicate other types of data to computing device 110. Though, the specific mechanism by which data cost information is communicated to computing device 110 is not a requirement of the invention.
Server 122 may obtain the data cost information in any suitable way. Information on a data charging policy, for example, may be established by the mobile network operator as part of one or more subscription plans offered to subscribers of the mobile network. The mobile network operator may associate a specific plan with mobile computing device 110 when user 112 enters into a subscription with the mobile network operator. The terms of such a subscription may determine the data charging policy applicable to computing device 110. Accordingly, server 122 may obtain data charging policy information from other components, not expressly illustrated in
Server 122 may obtain information on past data usage by mobile computing device 110 in any suitable way. Server 122 may monitor data traffic associated with mobile computing device 110 as that data traffic passes through access network 120. Though, information relating to past data usage may be tracked by billing components or other conventional components within a mobile network. Accordingly, server 122 may obtain information on past data usage associated with computing device 110 from other components, not shown, of the mobile network.
Regardless of how data cost information is obtained, a cost aware operating system may use this information in any of a number of ways. The operating system may, for example, use this information to enforce data usage policies applicable to applications or other user mode components executing on computing device 110. Alternatively or additionally, the cost aware operating system may provide cost related information on data usage to cost aware applications or other user mode components. The applications or other user mode components may then use such information for determining whether and how to perform network operations. Such that network operations are selectively performed based on cost.
One way in which a cost aware application may selectively perform a network operation is to defer the operation until a later time when the operation can be performed at a lower cost. In embodiments in which a charging policy imposes different charges based on data usage at different times of the day, deferring the operation until a lower cost time of day may be appropriate. Alternatively, mobile computing device 110 may be configured to connect to different types of networks. A cost aware operating system may maintain data cost information for each network and may use this data cost information to identify a lower cost network for performing a specific network operation. Accordingly, deferring a network operation may entail delaying execution of the operation until mobile computing device 110 is connected to a lower cost network and then performing the operation over the lower cost network.
In the example of
Network interface card 222 may be configured for communication over a mobile broadband network, such as a connection through base station 126 illustrated in
Each of network interface cards 220 and 222 may be controlled through software, illustrated as driver 224 and driver 226. Each of drivers 224 and 226 may be configured to control specific operations of its associated network interface card. Those operations may include transmitting and receiving data. Such control may be performed using techniques as are known in the art. Though, the specific mechanism by which transmission and reception occurs is not critical to the invention, and any suitable techniques may be used.
In operation, drivers 224 and 226 interface with components of an operating system of mobile computing device 210. The operating system serves as an intermediary between the drivers and one or more user mode components that generate or use the data exchanged through network interface cards 220 or 222. In this example, user mode components are indicated as applications 270A, 270B and 270C. Though, it should be recognized that any number of applications that send or receive data may execute on mobile computing device 210. Additionally, operating system services or other user mode components within the operating system may similarly send or receive data. Accordingly, applications 270A, 270B and 270C are exemplary and not limiting of the types of user mode components that may send or receive data.
In the example of
Stack 230 may perform operations such as receiving data for transmission from one of the applications 270A, 270B or 270C, partitioning that data into packets and attaching appropriate headers to the packets. Stack 230 may then transfer such packets to one of the drivers 224 or 226 for transmission through an associated network interface card 220 or 222, respectively. The specific format of each packet and the driver to which the packets are applied may be determined by stack 230. For example, an application may request that stack 230 establish a connection to a remote device. Stack 230 may form such a connection by exchanging communications with that remote device over a network to which one of the network interface cards 220 or 222 is connected. The format of the packets may then be determined by characteristics of the network. In some instances, the network interface card selected by stack 230 for forming the connection may be selected based on the networks over which the remote device is accessible. Though, when the remote device is accessible through multiple networks, the network through which the connection is established may depend on user preferences or relative performance of the networks over which the remote device may be reached. Such selection techniques are known in the art. In embodiments in which the operating system of computing device 210 is cost aware, the relative cost of communicating over each network may also be a factor in selecting a network for establishing such a connection.
Regardless of the specific approach used to select the network used for a connection, once that connection is established, the application may provide stack 230 with data for transmission through that connection. In providing data for transmission over a connection, an application need not specify a network over which that data will be communicated. Rather, stack 230 may process the data and format it as appropriate for transmission over the network associated with the connection.
Similarly, for connectionless protocols, such as UDP a user mode component may request transmission to an end point. Stack 230 may then apply known techniques to select a network and appropriate format for communication with that end point.
Stack 230 may perform such processing in stages. A first stage, which may be performed in upper stack portion 232, may be independent of the specific network over which the data is to be transmitted. Any processing that depends on the network over which the data is to be transmitted may be performed in lower stack portion 234. Processing in lower stock portion 234, for example, may include selecting an appropriate driver to which packets for transmission are routed. Though, any other suitable processing may alternatively or additionally be performed in lower stack portion 234.
Data received over networks to which network interface cards 220 and 222 are connected may also be processed through stack 230. For received data, stack 230 processes the data and makes it available to an appropriate one of the applications 270A . . . 270C. That processing may entail network specific processing, which may be performed in lower stack portion 234, and network independent processing, which may be performed in upper stack portion 232. In each case, though, the processing in each stack portion may be performed using techniques as are known in the art.
Data store 254 may contain information on data usage. The information in data store 254 may be organized in any suitable way. In some embodiments, data store 254 may contain aggregate usage information for one or more networks to which computing device 210 can connect. In other embodiments, the data usage information in data store 254 may be stored only for networks for which there is a corresponding charging policy in data store 252. Though, other criteria, including express user input, may be used to determine networks for which data usage information may be stored.
Instead of or in addition to storing aggregate data usage over a network, data store 254 may store information on data usage by user mode components. This information may be stored to record data usage by individual user mode components, such as applications 270A, 270B or 270C. Alternatively or additionally, information in data store 254 may be organized to show data usage by classes of user mode components. For example, all of the components of an operating system may be treated as a class, and information about data usage by operating system components may be stored in a single record in data store 254.
Storing data usage information in connection with user mode components may allow a cost aware operating system and/or cost aware applications to manage network operations based on data usage and data usage policies applicable to specific user mode components. To support such behavior, the cost aware operating system may include a further data store 253. Data store 253 may contain data usage policies applicable to one or more user mode components. In some embodiments, data usage policies may be provided for individual user mode components or classes of user mode components. Such data usage policies may be obtained in any suitable way. In some embodiments, information and data store 253 may be downloaded into data store 253 by and administrator of mobile computing device 210. Though in other embodiments, data usage policies may be obtained by cost service 256 through user interface 260. Through user interface 260, cost service 256 may obtain policy information from a user of mobile computing device 210.
Regardless of the mechanism by which cost service 256 obtains the information in data stores 252, 253 and 254, cost service 256 may use this information to facilitate cost aware operation of mobile computing device 210.
As described above in connection with
In some embodiments, information from usage monitor 250 may be used in conjunction with information obtained from a mobile network operator. For example, cost service 256 may obtain data usage information from a mobile network operator at relatively long intervals. Between those intervals, data usage information generated by usage monitor 250 may be used to provide more up-to-date information. Alternatively, data usage information collected by usage monitor 250 may be the predominant source of information on data usage. However, from time-to-time, data usage, as recorded by usage monitor 250, may be compared to data usage as reported by a mobile network operator. Discrepancies between the two techniques for measuring data usage may be resolved. For example, information in data store 254 acquired by usage monitor 250 may be updated such that data usage as measured by usage monitor 250 tracks data usage as reported by a mobile network operator.
In some embodiments, usage monitor 250 may acquire information about data usage that is not available to a mobile network operator. As one example, usage monitor 250 may have access to information both about a network over which data is transmitted or received and a user mode entity that is transmitting or receiving that data. Though a mobile network operator may have access to information about data usage, the mobile network operator may not necessarily be able to associate data transmitted through access network 120 with a specific user mode entity within computing device 210. To obtain such information, usage monitor 250 may be coupled to one or more locations in stack 230 where network information and user mode component information is available.
In the embodiment illustrated in
In some embodiments, upper stack portion 232 may perform processing that is independent of a network over which data is to be transmitted or has been received. Accordingly, usage monitor 250 may also be coupled to lower stack portion 234 where information about the network may be available. In this example, usage monitor 250 is coupled through extensibility point 242 to lower stack portion 234. Usage monitor 250 may correlate information received from lower stack portion 234 about a network with information received from upper stack portion about a user mode component to enable usage monitor 250 to generate data usage information on an application-by-application basis.
Any suitable technique may be used to implement extensibility points within stack 230. Though, extensibility points may be implemented using techniques that are known in the art. Extensibility points, such as extensibility points 242 and 244, may be incorporated into a stack 230 in other contexts, such as to allow anti-virus software to interface with stack 230. Through such extensibility points, stack 230 may provide information about packets being processed for transmission or upon receipt over a network. Additionally, through such extensibility points, external components may provide commands to stack 230, which may influence processing of received packets or packets to be transmitted. In the case of usage monitor 250, extensibility points 242 and 244 may be used only to acquire information. Though, other aspects of a cost aware operating system may use extensibility points 242 or 244 to control operation of stack 230 based on data cost information.
Regardless of the manner in which information is loaded into data stores 252, 253 and 254, cost service 256 may use this information in one or more ways. Cost service 256, for example, may access data stores 252, 253 and 254 to provide information to cost aware applications, which then may alter the way in which they perform network operations based on cost information. Alternatively, cost service 256 may use the information in data stores 252, 253 and 254 to directly control the performance of network operations.
To support provision of cost information to cost aware applications, or other user mode components, cost service 256 may have an application programming interface 258. A cost aware application may, prior to performing a network operation, place a call through application programming interface 258 to obtain cost information. In response to such a call, cost service 256 may provide to the cost aware application any information from any of the data stores 252, 253 and 254.
Alternatively or additionally, cost service 256 may compute values of cost parameters applicable to the specific application making the call through application programming interface 258. As one example, a cost aware application making a call through application programming interface 258 may identify a network adapter and specify an amount of data to be transmitted through that network adapter. Based on information maintained by the operating system, cost service 256 may identify a network currently associated with the network adapter. Cost service 256 may access data store 252 to obtain the data charging policy for that network. Because the policy may specify different approaches to computing a charge for data transfer based on whether usage of that network is above or below a cap, cost service 256 may access data store 254 to determine prior data usage over that network. By combining this information, cost service 256 may determine the basis for which a charge will be imposed for the data to be transmitted. The basis for computing the charge may be communicated to the cost aware application in response to a call through application programming interface 258.
Though, this charging basis information may be presented in other formats. In some embodiments, a call through application programming interface 258 may include information about an amount of data to be transmitted. In that scenario, information about the basis for computing a charge may be reflected in a computation of the incremental charge that will be incurred by transmitting the specified amount of data over the network. As yet another possibility, application programming interface 258 may return information defining a charging policy and prior data usage.
Though, it should be appreciated that any suitable data cost information may be made available through application programming interface 258 and that information need not be provided directly in response to call on the interface. As an example of one possible variation, application programming interface 258 may support a registration of user mode components to receive notifications when networks of specified cost characteristics are available. For example, as described above in connection with
In addition to using the information in data stores 252, 253 and 254 to provide information to cost aware user mode components, cost service 256 may control the manner in which operations involving communication of data over a network are performed based on data cost information. In the embodiment of
In embodiments in which cost service 256 determined the manner in which data may be transmitted or received, cost service 256 may interface with one or more enforcement components to implement such a determination. In the example of
Firewall 240 may be a component as is known in the art that can block the transmission or reception of packets. Firewall 240 may be configured to block or restrict the transmission of data on a user mode component-by-component basis. In scenarios in which cost service 256 determines that allowing an application component, for example, to further transmit data over a network, cost service 256 may configure firewall 240 to block transmissions from that application. In some scenarios, firewall 240 may be configurable to allow transmissions from identified user mode components, but to restrict the data rate for those transmissions, such that the transmissions are “throttled.” Accordingly, firewall 240 is an example of an enforcement mechanism that cost service 256 may employ to enforce a data usage policy for a specific user mode component or class of user mode components.
Other enforcement mechanisms may alternatively or additionally be included. As an example of one possible alternative, cost service 256 may interface with stack 230 to enforce a data usage policy. Cost service 256 may interface with stack 230, for example, through extensibility points, such as extensibility points 242 and 244. Through such extensibility points, cost service 256 may obtain information about data being transmitted or received. Cost service 256 may, in response to such information, provide commands to stack 230 through extensibility points 242 or 244. Those commands may indicate whether a data packet is to be passed by stack 230. In this way, transmission of data over a network may be blocked or throttled. Alternatively or additionally, commands provided by cost service 256 may control stack 230 to change the network over which one or more data packets is to be transmitted. For example, though an application component 270A . . . 270C specifies transmission through a network adapter associated with a metered network, when cost service 256 determines that transmission over that metered network would violate a data usage policy associated with the application generating the data, cost service 256 may generate commands to stack 230 causing the data packets from that application component to be transmitted over an alternative, non-metered network.
Through extensibility points, cost service 256 may also impact the amount of data sent to computing device 210, which may also incur data usage charges. As one example of an enforcement mechanism that may be employed to reduce the amount of data sent to mobile computing device 210, cost service 256 may generate a command to stack 230 to break down a network connection. Breaking down the connection may block transmission of data by an external device directed to a user mode component executing on mobile computing device 210.
In addition to obtaining data usage policy information from data store 253, cost service 256 may obtain data usage policy information in other ways. As one example, data usage policy information may be transferred from a user mode component to cost service 256.
As a more specific example, if the value of tag 238 indicates that data transmission is of high priority, cost service 256 may establish or maintain the connection for transfer of data to or from that application component even if there is an incremental cost associated with transmission of such data. Alternatively, if the value of tag 238 indicates a relatively low priority, cost service 256 may break down a connection involving that application component to block transmission of data from that application component and further receipt of data directed to that application component over a network for which further transmissions will incur data usage charges. As yet another example, a value of tag 238 may indicate a medium priority associated with data transmission for an application component. Accordingly, cost service 256 may allow such transmissions to continue so long as the incremental cost associated with the data transfer is below a threshold. However, when the incremental cost for further transmission exceeds a threshold, cost service 256 may block further transmissions.
In this example, three priority values for tag 238 were described. It should be appreciated, though, that tag 238 may take on any number of values and cost service 256 may be programmed to respond to each such possible value differently.
Also, it should be recognized that, though
In this example, field 310 includes information about a charging policy for the network. A value in field 310 may indicate, for example, that the identified network is unrestricted, meaning that the mobile network operator does not impose an additional charge for incremental data usage. Alternatively, a value in field 310 may indicate that the charging policy of the network is a fixed type charging policy, meaning that there is no additional charge for data usage up to a specified cap, but there may be an incremental charge for data usage above the cap. As a further example, a value in field 310 may indicate a variable charging policy for the identified network, meaning that the mobile network operator imposes a charge for each unit of data transmitted over the network.
In addition, field 312 may contain a value of a flag, indicating a current charge state for the identified network based on prior data usage. Field 312 may take on different values, depending on the charging policy indicated in field 310. The value of the flag in field 312 may indicate that an amount of prior data usage has occurred such that a usage cap for the identified network has been exceeded and a mobile network operator may be imposing a charge per unit of data transmitted. Such a value may be appropriate for a network using a fixed-type charging policy.
As another example, a value in field 312 may indicate that the identified network is being throttled. Such a value may be appropriate for a network using a fixed-type charging policy in which, upon exceeding a cap, data transmissions are throttled.
As yet another example, a value in field 312 may indicate that mobile computing device 310 is in a roaming mode. Such a value may indicate that computing device 210 is outside of the home service area for the mobile network operator with which a user of mobile computing device 210 has a subscription. In a roaming mode, information on network data usage or other elements of data cost information may be unavailable from the mobile network operator with which the user has a subscription. A cost aware user mode component may treat such information as indicating that the identified network is imposing a charge for each increment of data transmitted and that this charge is imposed at a high rate. Cost aware user mode components may use this information to determine that network transmissions of all but the highest priority information should be blocked or routed to an alternative network.
In the example of
Another attribute that may be included among attributes 320 is a cap threshold. For a network with a fixed type charging policy, the value of this attribute may indicate a threshold above which a per unit charge is imposed, the transmission rate is throttled or some other characteristic of network charging or operation changes.
A further attribute may be a time stamp. A value of the time stamp attribute may indicate when values for the information conveyed through application programming interface 258 were obtained. In scenarios in which the information provided through application programming interface 258 is derived from a mobile network operator, the time stamp may indicate the time at which the last update of information from the mobile network operator was received.
As yet another example of an attribute that may be provided through application programming interface 258, a plan reset date may be included. For networks that have charging policies that are based on usage during an interval, such as a month or billing cycle, a plan reset date attribute may indicate the date on which a new interval begins such that accumulated usage is effectively reset to zero on that date.
A further attribute may indicate the effective connected speed for mobile computing device 210. This attribute may indicate the effective link speed for mobile computing device 210. Such information may indicate conditions on the network. Alternatively or additionally, in embodiments in which the network employs a charging policy that includes throttling data transfers that exceed a cap, the information in this attribute may indicate a mode in which the network is currently operating.
It should be appreciated that
Table I illustrates examples of possible combinations of values that may be provided in fields 310, 312 and 322A . . . 322N. In the example provided by Table I, values representing charging policies, such as may be represented by a value in field 310, are listed in a column of Table I under the heading “Cost Value.” A column under the heading “Flags” indicates possible values for flag field 312. Other columns in Table I provide examples of the attributes 320 that may be passed through application programming interface 258 in connection with other data cost information. Possible values for an attribute that identifies prior data usage are indicated in Table I under the column heading “Data Usage.” Possible values for an attribute representing a threshold used to define a cap appear in a column of Table I under the heading “Cap Threshold.” Possible values of a time stamp, indicating a time at which the data cost information provided to a user mode component through application programming interface 258 was acquired from a mobile network operator. Possible values of a further attribute, representing a date on which tracking of cumulative data usage resets in accordance with a subscription with a mobile network operator are indicated in the column under the heading of “Plan Reset Date.” Though not illustrated in Table I, other attributes may be provided, such as an effective data rate for communication over the network.
Table I illustrates a plurality of possible cost states that have been defined for a network. Possible cost states are identified in a column under the heading “Cost States.” Accordingly, each row in Table I indicates possible values in each of the fields provided through application programming interface 258 in a specific cost state. For example, the row of Table I corresponding to a cost state indicated as “Connection is unrestricted of cap or usage charges,” identifies possible values for fields 310, 312, 322A . . . 322N for that cost state.
Specifically in this example, because the connection is unrestricted, field 310 contains a value indicating that the network charging policy corresponds to an unrestricted policy. Similarly, because there is no cap associated with the unrestricted charging policy, no flag will be set in this cost state to indicate usage relative to a cap.
For attributes 320, some may not be applicable for an indicated cost state. In the specific example of an unrestricted charging policy, an attribute corresponding to a cap threshold is not applicable, as indicated in Table I. Other attributes may take on numeric values. For example, an attribute indicating data usage may have any value representing an amount of prior data usage. An attribute indicating a time stamp may have any value indicating a time. An attribute indicating a plan reset date may also have any value indicating a date.
In other cost states, the fields 310, 312 and 322A . . . 322N may have different allowed values. For example, as indicated in the next row of Table I, when the cost states is “Connection is a cap plan and is operating below the cap threshold,” field 310 may take on a value indicating that the charging policy is a fixed type charging policy. Though a cap may exist for this cost state, as indicated in the column for “Cap Threshold,” because the mobile computing device is operating below the cap threshold, no flag is set in field 312 in this cost state.
Other attributes also may take on values in a cost state corresponding to a plan with a cap and operation below the cap threshold. For example, attributes representing data usage, cap threshold, time stamp or plan reset date may take on any value in this state.
As yet a further example, in a cost state indicating that “Connection is charged on a per byte basis,” field 310 may take on a value, as indicated in the column entitled “Cost Value,” representing a variable type charging policy. In this state, as indicated by the column entitled “Flags,” the value in field 312 may indicate that no flags are set. In this cost state, a value for a cap threshold is inapplicable, but other attributes such as data usage, a time stamp and a plan reset date, may have any suitable value of the appropriate type.
Other rows of Table I indicate further possible cost states and acceptable values passed through application programming interface 258 in those states. Specifically in this example, Table I illustrates a further cost state of “Connection is approaching over cap,” “Connection has reached over cap and is now being charged overage charges in bytes,” “Connection has reached over cap and is now being throttled,” “Connection is being throttled by the mobile network operator,” and “Connection is roaming outside of the mobile network operator's network.” Table I indicates possible values for each fields indicated in
The cost state reported through application programming interface 258 in response to a request for data cost information may be determined in any suitable way. The cost state, for example, may be reported by the mobile network operator. Alternatively or additionally, the cost state may be determined by cost service 256 or other component executing on mobile computing device 210. In the example represented by Table I, any of the cost states, except roaming outside of the mobile network operator's network, may be determined by the mobile network operator. The roaming state may not be indicated by the mobile network operator because the mobile network operator may not have a suitable means of communication with the mobile computing device 210 while it is roaming. Though, the specific mechanism by which the cost state and corresponding attribute values are determined is not critical to the invention.
Regardless of the manner in which the information passed through application programming interface 258 is generated and the specific values in specific fields, that information may be used by a cost aware user mode component to selectively perform network operations, taking into account the data cost information.
The process of
In some embodiments, the usage policy received at block 410 may be received based on user input through user interface 260. In such an embodiment, cost service 256 may store the usage policy in data store 253. Though, data store 253 may be populated with data usage policies in any suitable way, including using techniques as described above.
Moreover, it is not a requirement that the processing at block 410 be performed by cost service 256. In embodiments in which sub process 430 is performed within a cost aware user mode component, the usage policy received at block 410 may be received by that cost aware user mode component. Accordingly, it is not a requirement that the processing at block 410 occur dynamically. Rather, the usage policy received at block 410 may be encoded into the cost aware user mode component at any time prior to its execution. Though, in other embodiments, the usage policy received at block 410 may be dynamically associated with a user mode component during operation of mobile computing device 210 in any suitable way. Examples of ways in which a usage policy may be dynamically associated with a user mode component are through the use of a plug-in that encodes the logic of the usage policy or by configuration settings that are adjusted by user input.
Regardless of the manner in which a usage policy is received at block 410, processing may proceed to block 412. At block 412, a network charging policy may be received. In the embodiment illustrated in
The process of
Regardless of the manner in which the charging policy and data usage information is obtained, this information may be used at block 416 to compute a current charging basis. Processing at block 416, for example, may result in identification of a cost state, represented by a cost value and a setting for flags, as indicated in one of the rows of Table I. This processing may be performed by cost service 256. Though, the specific mechanism by which the current charging basis is identified at block 416 and the manner in which this computation is represented is not critical to the invention, and any suitable technique may be used.
In the example of
Based on this information, a cost aware application receiving the information at block 418 may perform sub process 430. In this example, sub process 430 represents conditional processing of a network operation. The network operation may involve transmission of data over a network for which data cost information was obtained at block 418.
In the example of
Regardless of the manner in which the cost state is identified, if usage has not exceeded the threshold associated with a cap, the process may branch to sub process 450. At sub process 450, the network operation may proceed as requested. In this example in which the network operation involves transmission of data, sub process 450 involves transmitting the data over the network. Though, it should be appreciated that transmission of data is an example only of possible network operations. Operations that trigger data being sent by an external device to mobile computing device 210 is another example of a network operation that may be conditionally processed within sub process 430. Moreover, operations that involve a combination of transmission and reception of data similarly may be conditionally processed. Accordingly, the specific operation that is conditionally processed is not a requirement of the invention.
Conversely, if processing at decision block 432 determines that mobile computing device 210 is in an over cap cost state, processing may branch from decision block 432 to sub process 440. Sub process 440 may entail processing the network operation in a way that entails less data usage than performing the network operation through sub process 450. Any suitable alternative processing may be performed at sub process 440 to result in less data usage. The network operation, for example, may be canceled, delayed, or performed in an alternative way that results in less data transferred over the network for which mobile computing device 210 is in an over cap cost state. Accordingly, processing at sub process 440 may entail data compression techniques. Such techniques may increase the delay in performing the network operation or may have other undesirable affects, such as reducing the resolution of graphics presented on user interface of computing device 210. Though, a cost aware application component may apply a usage policy reflecting such trade-offs between cost and performance or other attributes affecting operation of mobile computing device 210.
In the example of
Upon completion of either sub process 440 or sub process 450, the sub process 430 may end, with conditional processing of the network operation being completed. The process of
Sub process 540 may continue until execution of application functions results in a network operation being required. At block 542, such a network operation may be encountered. A network operation may be any operation that requires the transmission of data over a network or triggers the likely reception of data over the network.
Upon encountering a network operation as part of the cost aware application, processing may proceed to block 544. At block 544, the cost aware application may obtain a current basis for usage charges for data communicated over a network. Processing at block 544 may entail placing a call on application programming interface 258.
In the example of
At decision block 552, sub process 530 may branch depending on the computed cost of completing the network operation. In this example, processing at block 552 involves comparing the computed cost to a threshold. The threshold used at decision block 552 may be based on a data usage policy applicable to mobile computing device 210 or, in some embodiments, applicable to the cost aware application performing sub process 530. Regardless of the manner in which that threshold value is obtained, if the cost of the network operation is below the threshold, processing may branch to sub process 570. At sub process 570, the network operation may be performed.
Conversely, if, based on processing at decision block 552, it is determined that the cost of the network operation will exceed the threshold, the sub process 530 branches to sub process 560. Processing at sub process 560 entails modifying the network operation to reduce the amount of data exchanged over the network. In this example, modifying the operation may entail foregoing transmitting or requesting certain types of data. Alternatively or additionally, sub process 560 may entail compressing data to be transmitted using lossless or lossy compression techniques or applying another suitable technique to reduce the amount of data transmitted.
Upon completion of sub process 560 or sub process 570, the processing illustrated in
Turning now to
Sub process 630 begins with sub process 640. In this example, the update service identifies an available update for one or more software components of mobile computing device 210. Processing as part of sub process 640 to identify an available update may be performed in any suitable way, including using techniques as are known in the art. Processing at sub process 640, in addition to identifying an available update, may entail identifying a networked server from which the update may be obtained and a size, in terms of bytes of data that would be downloaded in performing the update.
Processing may then proceed to block 642 where the update service obtains the current basis for data usage charges on a network over which the update server can be accessed. Such information may be obtained by placing a call on application programming interface 258 or in any other suitable way. The data obtained at block 642, in some embodiments, may indicate a network charging policy and a current cost state for the network such that a cost aware update service may compute the cost of performing the identified update at block 644. Alternatively, the processing represented by blocks 642 and 644 may be performed within cost service 256. In that scenario, for example, a call on application programming interface 258 may entail providing to cost service 256 an amount of data to be transmitted as part of the update.
Regardless of the specific component that computes the cost of the operation, processing may proceed to decision block 650 where the process may branch depending on the cost. If the cost does not exceed a threshold, processing may proceed to sub process 670. The threshold employed at block 650 may be determined based on a charging policy. That charging policy may be specified for computing device 210 or some other entity or classification of entities. For example, the charging policy may be specified specifically for the cost aware update service. Though, in some embodiments, the usage policy may be specified for operating system components in the aggregate.
Regardless of the manner in which the threshold is obtained, if the computed cost for the update is less than the threshold, processing may branch to sub process 670 where the update is obtained. Conversely, if the cost exceeds the threshold, processing may branch to decision block 652.
At decision block 652, sub process 630 may again branch depending on criteria relating to the importance or priority of a network operation to be performed. In this example, the criteria applied at decision block 652 relate to the severity of the update identified in sub process 640. In this example, processing branches to sub process 670 when the update is classified as being of high severity. In that scenario, processing continues at sub process 670 where the update is obtained. Conversely, if the severity of the update is low, the process branches to sub process 660.
At sub process 660, the update service waits to find a lower cost network. Such processing may be implemented in any suitable way. For example, processing within sub process 660 may entail placing a call through application programming interface 258 to register with cost service 256 for a notification when a lower cost network is identified. Alternatively or additionally, processing as part of sub process 670 may entail canceling the update. In embodiments in which the cost aware update service periodically checks for available updates, canceling the update based on cost criteria when only high cost networks are available may achieve the affect of deferring the operation until a time for a periodic update coincides with availability of a lower cost network.
Upon completion of sub process 670, resulting in the identified update being completed, or completion of sub process 660, resulting in a deferral of the update operation, the processing illustrated in
Processing at block 710 may be performed in any suitable operating system component. As one example, with the architecture of
At block 712, cost service 256 may apply a data usage policy based on a user mode entity associated with the application initiating a data transfer operation at block 710. The user mode entity may be the application itself. Though, in other embodiments, the user mode entity may be a user account or other suitable entity that a cost aware operating system may associate with the operation at block 710.
Processing at block 712 may be performed by cost service 256 obtaining information from stack 230, such as through extensibility points within stack 230. Based on such information, cost service 256 may access data stores 252, 253, and/or 254. Though, in some embodiments, processing at block 712 may entail accessing a priority tag 238 passed through interface 236 from the application requesting an operation involving data transfer at block 710. Processing may then entail balancing the priority attached by the application to the cost state associated with the network or other indicator of incremental cost for transferring the required data over the network.
Regardless of how information about the policy is determined, based on the accessed information, cost service 256 may determine whether the operation indicated by the received data at block 710 is consistent with the data usage policy for the identified user mode entity.
The process of
Upon completion of the processing at block 722, the process of
Conversely, if as a result of processing at decision block 720, the connection is not disallowed, processing may proceed from decision block 720 to block 730. At block 730, the data for transmission may be associated with the user mode entity associated with the application component requesting the data transmission at block 710. Any suitable mechanism may be used at block 730 to associate data with a user mode entity, such as writing an identifier into a field associated with a buffer in memory holding the data.
Regardless of the manner in which the data is associated with a user mode entity, processing may proceed to sub process 732. At sub process 732, a transport for the data may be selected. Sub process 732 may be performed using techniques as are known in the art. Processing in sub process 732 may result in an identification of a network over which the data is to be transmitted. Such an identification may be made in any suitable way, including by applying criteria as are known in the art to select a network that maximizes criteria indicative of performance. Though, in the illustrated embodiment, the selection at sub process 732 may be based, at least in part, on cost of each network.
Following sub process 732, processing may be network specific. Accordingly, the process steps, including those at block 734 and decision block 740 may be based on a specific network and may be performed within lower stack portion 234. In contrast, processing at decision block 720 and block 730 may be network independent, and may be performed in upper stack portion 232. Associating a user mode entity with data to be transmitted at block 730 allows the processing in lower stack portion 234, though network specific, to also account for different policies applicable to different user mode entities. Accordingly, at block 734, the usage policy for the user mode entity may be applied in conjunction with data cost information for a specific network to determine whether transmission of the data complies with the usage policy for the user mode entity.
At decision block 740, the process of
Though, if transmission is inconsistent with the usage policy for the user mode entity, processing may branch from decision block 440 to block 742. At block 742, processing to reduce data usage may be performed. In this example, the processing to reduce data usage involves throttling the data to reduce the rate at which the data is transmitted. The data may be throttled in any suitable way, including buffering the data within stack 230 or adjusting settings on firewall 240. Though throttling the data may not reduce the amount of data transmitted for a single network operation, throttling the data may reduce the rate at which network operations are performed, thereby lowering the total amount of data communicated over a network over time.
The process may then proceed to sub process 750 where the data, as throttled is transmitted. Regardless of whether sub process 750 entails transmitting the data with or without throttling, from sub process 750, processing may proceed to block 752. At block 752, the amount of data transmitted may be recorded. Recording transmitted data at block 752 may entail updating data store 254 or taking any other suitable action.
Thereafter, processing at
Each display area provides a mechanism by which a user may input values indicating a threshold amount of data usage below which the application will be permitted to perform operations that trigger data usage. Additionally, each display area contains controls through which a user may specify conditional processing to be performed when that threshold is exceeded. In this example, the threshold is specified as a percentage of a data usage cap for a network. The cap is illustrated graphically in graphical user interface 810 by indicator 860. Each of the display areas, of which display area 840D is representative, includes a slider 850. Slider 850 is an example of a graphical user interface control as is known in the art. A user may specify a value by interacting with graphical user interface 810 using a mouse or other suitable human interface device to indicate a position of slider 850.
In the scenario illustrated in
Moreover, display area 840D includes controls, such as controls 852 and 854, through which a user may specify conditional processing once the specified threshold is exceeded. In this example, controls 852 and 854 are check boxes. In the specific scenario illustrated in
Other display areas 840A, 840B and 840C associated with email applications, browser applications and games, respectively, similarly have sliders and controls, allowing a user to specify thresholds and conditional processing once the threshold is exceeded for those other types of applications. For example, display area 840A indicates that the user has selected a threshold of 50% of the cap for the network for e-mail applications. Display area 840A also indicates that a user has selected that, once data usage exceeds the specified threshold of 50%, email applications are blocked from initiating operations that require data transmission.
Display 840B indicates similar settings for browser applications. Though, in this case the threshold is set at 90% of the cap and the conditional processing entails throttling transmissions once the threshold is exceeded.
For games, as indicated in display area 840C, the user has set the threshold at 60% of the cap, and network operations requiring data transmissions associated with games are block once that threshold is exceeded.
In this example, graphical user interface 810 includes a control 830 through which a user may select a network for which the settings entered through graphical user interface 810 apply. In this example, control 830 is formatted as a drop down list box, which may be rendered using techniques as are known in the art. In the operating state illustrated in
Graphical user interface 810 shows that a user may select multiple ways in which to input values forming a policy for user mode components. In this example, multiple tabs are illustrated, with different tabs associated with different classes of applications. Tab 820A has been selected, allowing a user to specify values for applications on a category by category basis. Other tabs, such as tabs 820B, 820C, 820D and 820E are also available. Through these tabs, a user may access other display areas through which a user may specify policy information for user mode entities in other ways. For example, accessing tab 820B may allow a user to access email applications individually and establish values of parameters of a usage policy for each application separately. Likewise, tabs 820C, 820D and 820E may allow a user to access display areas corresponding to browser applications, games and multi-media applications, respectively, and provide values defining policies for applications of these types individually. Accordingly, it should be appreciated at
The above described techniques may be implemented in any suitable computing device.
The invention is operational with numerous other general purpose or special purpose computing system environments or configurations. Examples of well known computing systems, environments, and/or configurations that may be suitable for use with the invention include, but are not limited to, personal computers, server computers, hand-held or laptop devices, multiprocessor systems, microprocessor-based systems, set top boxes, programmable consumer electronics, network PCs, minicomputers, mainframe computers, distributed computing environments that include any of the above systems or devices, and the like.
The computing environment may execute computer-executable instructions, such as program modules. Generally, program modules include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. The invention may also be practiced in distributed computing environments where tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, program modules may be located in both local and remote computer storage media including memory storage devices.
With reference to
Computer 910 typically includes a variety of computer readable media. Computer readable media can be any available media that can be accessed by computer 910 and includes both volatile and nonvolatile media, removable and non-removable media. By way of example, and not limitation, computer readable media may comprise computer storage media and communication media. Computer storage media includes both volatile and nonvolatile, removable and non-removable media implemented in any method or technology for storage of information such as computer readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other data. Computer storage media includes, but is not limited to, RAM, ROM, EEPROM, flash memory or other memory technology, CD-ROM, digital versatile disks (DVD) or other optical disk storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium which can be used to store the desired information and which can accessed by computer 910. Communication media typically embodies computer readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other data in a modulated data signal such as a carrier wave or other transport mechanism and includes any information delivery media. The term “modulated data signal” means a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information in the signal. By way of example, and not limitation, communication media includes wired media such as a wired network or direct-wired connection, and wireless media such as acoustic, RF, infrared and other wireless media. Combinations of the any of the above should also be included within the scope of computer readable media.
The system memory 930 includes computer storage media in the form of volatile and/or nonvolatile memory such as read only memory (ROM) 931 and random access memory (RAM) 932. A basic input/output system 933 (BIOS), containing the basic routines that help to transfer information between elements within computer 910, such as during start-up, is typically stored in ROM 931. RAM 932 typically contains data and/or program modules that are immediately accessible to and/or presently being operated on by processing unit 920. By way of example, and not limitation,
The computer 910 may also include other removable/non-removable, volatile/nonvolatile computer storage media. By way of example only,
The drives and their associated computer storage media discussed above and illustrated in
The computer 910 may operate in a networked environment using logical connections to one or more remote computers, such as a remote computer 980. The remote computer 980 may be a personal computer, a server, a router, a network PC, a peer device or other common network node, and typically includes many or all of the elements described above relative to the computer 910, although only a memory storage device 981 has been illustrated in
When used in a LAN networking environment, the computer 910 is connected to the LAN 971 through a network interface or adapter 970. When used in a WAN networking environment, the computer 910 typically includes a modem 972 or other means for establishing communications over the WAN 973, such as the Internet. The modem 972, which may be internal or external, may be connected to the system bus 921 via the user input interface 960, or other appropriate mechanism. In a networked environment, program modules depicted relative to the computer 910, or portions thereof, may be stored in the remote memory storage device. By way of example, and not limitation,
Having thus described several aspects of at least one embodiment of this invention, it is to be appreciated that various alterations, modifications, and improvements will readily occur to those skilled in the art.
For example, it is described that applications may access an API maintained by an operating system to obtain current network information that includes a current basis for computing usage charges. This information may be presented as a cost per unit of data, which allows the application to compute a cost of a contemplated operation. Alternatively or additionally, this information may be presented directly as a cost of performing a contemplated operation.
Also, operation of a cost aware application has been described. It should be appreciated that an application is an example of a user-mode component. Other user-mode components, such as services executing in the operating system may access cost information and selectively perform operations involving data transmissions over a network based on that cost information.
Also, though automated techniques are described by which a service that uses cost information related to data usage may obtain that information, manual or semi-automated techniques may be used. For example, a user can expressly input cost information. Alternatively, a network interface card may be configured with such information or a data file containing such information may be loaded onto the computing device when the data service is activated or at other times.
Further, examples are provided in which management of network operations is performed based on user-mode entities. However, it should be appreciated that usage information may be collected for any suitable entity and that management of network operations may similarly may be performed on any suitable entities, including kernel mode or other components of an operating system.
Such alterations, modifications, and improvements are intended to be part of this disclosure, and are intended to be within the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing description and drawings are by way of example only.
The above-described embodiments of the present invention can be implemented in any of numerous ways. For example, the embodiments may be implemented using hardware, software or a combination thereof. When implemented in software, the software code can be executed on any suitable processor or collection of processors, whether provided in a single computer or distributed among multiple computers. Such processors may be implemented as integrated circuits, with one or more processors in an integrated circuit component. Though, a processor may be implemented using circuitry in any suitable format.
Further, it should be appreciated that a computer may be embodied in any of a number of forms, such as a rack-mounted computer, a desktop computer, a laptop computer, or a tablet computer. Additionally, a computer may be embedded in a device not generally regarded as a computer but with suitable processing capabilities, including a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), a smart phone or any other suitable portable or fixed electronic device.
Also, a computer may have one or more input and output devices. These devices can be used, among other things, to present a user interface. Examples of output devices that can be used to provide a user interface include printers or display screens for visual presentation of output and speakers or other sound generating devices for audible presentation of output. Examples of input devices that can be used for a user interface include keyboards, and pointing devices, such as mice, touch pads, and digitizing tablets. As another example, a computer may receive input information through speech recognition or in other audible format.
Such computers may be interconnected by one or more networks in any suitable form, including as a local area network or a wide area network, such as an enterprise network or the Internet. Such networks may be based on any suitable technology and may operate according to any suitable protocol and may include wireless networks, wired networks or fiber optic networks.
Also, the various methods or processes outlined herein may be coded as software that is executable on one or more processors that employ any one of a variety of operating systems or platforms. Additionally, such software may be written using any of a number of suitable programming languages and/or programming or scripting tools, and also may be compiled as executable machine language code or intermediate code that is executed on a framework or virtual machine.
In this respect, the invention may be embodied as a computer readable storage medium (or multiple computer readable media) (e.g., a computer memory, one or more floppy discs, compact discs (CD), optical discs, digital video disks (DVD), magnetic tapes, flash memories, circuit configurations in Field Programmable Gate Arrays or other semiconductor devices, or other non-transitory, tangible computer storage medium) encoded with one or more programs that, when executed on one or more computers or other processors, perform methods that implement the various embodiments of the invention discussed above. The computer readable storage medium or media can be transportable, such that the program or programs stored thereon can be loaded onto one or more different computers or other processors to implement various aspects of the present invention as discussed above. As used herein, the term “non-transitory computer-readable storage medium” encompasses only a computer-readable medium that can be considered to be a manufacture (i.e., article of manufacture) or a machine. Alternatively or additionally, the invention may be embodied as a computer readable medium other than a computer-readable storage medium, such as a propagating signal.
The terms “program” or “software” are used herein in a generic sense to refer to any type of computer code or set of computer-executable instructions that can be employed to program a computer or other processor to implement various aspects of the present invention as discussed above. Additionally, it should be appreciated that according to one aspect of this embodiment, one or more computer programs that when executed perform methods of the present invention need not reside on a single computer or processor, but may be distributed in a modular fashion amongst a number of different computers or processors to implement various aspects of the present invention.
Computer-executable instructions may be in many forms, such as program modules, executed by one or more computers or other devices. Generally, program modules include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Typically the functionality of the program modules may be combined or distributed as desired in various embodiments.
Also, data structures may be stored in computer-readable media in any suitable form. For simplicity of illustration, data structures may be shown to have fields that are related through location in the data structure. Such relationships may likewise be achieved by assigning storage for the fields with locations in a computer-readable medium that conveys relationship between the fields. However, any suitable mechanism may be used to establish a relationship between information in fields of a data structure, including through the use of pointers, tags or other mechanisms that establish relationship between data elements.
Various aspects of the present invention may be used alone, in combination, or in a variety of arrangements not specifically discussed in the embodiments described in the foregoing and is therefore not limited in its application to the details and arrangement of components set forth in the foregoing description or illustrated in the drawings. For example, aspects described in one embodiment may be combined in any manner with aspects described in other embodiments.
Also, the invention may be embodied as a method, of which an example has been provided. The acts performed as part of the method may be ordered in any suitable way. Accordingly, embodiments may be constructed in which acts are performed in an order different than illustrated, which may include performing some acts simultaneously, even though shown as sequential acts in illustrative embodiments.
Use of ordinal terms such as “first,” “second,” “third,” etc., in the claims to modify a claim element does not by itself connote any priority, precedence, or order of one claim element over another or the temporal order in which acts of a method are performed, but are used merely as labels to distinguish one claim element having a certain name from another element having a same name (but for use of the ordinal term) to distinguish the claim elements.
Also, the phraseology and terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting. The use of “including,” “comprising,” or “having,” “containing,” “involving,” and variations thereof herein, is meant to encompass the items listed thereafter and equivalents thereof as well as additional items.
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/981,271, filed Dec. 28, 2015, entitled “OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORTING COST AWARE APPLICATIONS,” (Atty. Dkt. No. 330919.06/330919-US-CNT), which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/318,380, filed Jun. 27, 2014, entitled “OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORTING COST AWARE APPLICATIONS,” now U.S. Pat. No. 9,338,309, issued May 10, 2016 (Atty. Dkt. No. 330919.05), which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/844,932, filed Mar. 16, 2013, entitled “OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORTING COST AWARE APPLICATIONS,” now U.S. Pat. No. 9,008,610, issued Apr. 14, 2015 (Atty. Dkt. No. 330919.04), which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/972,230, filed Dec. 17, 2010, entitled “OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORTING COST AWARE APPLICATIONS,” now U.S. Pat. No. 8,971,841, issued Mar. 3, 2015 (Atty. Dkt. No. 330919.01). The entirety of each of these afore-mentioned applications is incorporated herein by reference.