The present invention generally relates to prosthetic valves for implantation in body channels. More particularly, the present invention relates to prosthetic heart valves configured to be surgically implanted in less time than current valves.
In vertebrate animals, the heart is a hollow muscular organ having four pumping chambers as seen in
The atria are the blood-receiving chambers, which pump blood into the ventricles. The ventricles are the blood-discharging chambers. A wall composed of fibrous and muscular parts, called the interatrial septum separates the right and left atria (see
The synchronous pumping actions of the left and right sides of the heart constitute the cardiac cycle. The cycle begins with a period of ventricular relaxation, called ventricular diastole. The cycle ends with a period of ventricular contraction, called ventricular systole. The four valves (see
The mitral and tricuspid valves are defined by fibrous rings of collagen, each called an annulus, which forms a part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. The annulus provides peripheral attachments for the two cusps or leaflets of the mitral valve (called the anterior and posterior cusps) and the three cusps or leaflets of the tricuspid valve. The free edges of the leaflets connect to chordae tendineae from more than one papillary muscle, as seen in
When the left ventricle contracts after filling with blood from the left atrium, the walls of the ventricle move inward and release some of the tension from the papillary muscle and chords. The blood pushed up against the under-surface of the mitral leaflets causes them to rise toward the annulus plane of the mitral valve. As they progress toward the annulus, the leading edges of the anterior and posterior leaflet come together forming a seal and closing the valve. In the healthy heart, leaflet coaptation occurs near the plane of the mitral annulus. The blood continues to be pressurized in the left ventricle until it is ejected into the aorta. Contraction of the papillary muscles is simultaneous with the contraction of the ventricle and serves to keep healthy valve leaflets tightly shut at peak contraction pressures exerted by the ventricle.
Various surgical techniques may be used to repair a diseased or damaged valve. In a valve replacement operation, the damaged leaflets are excised and the annulus sculpted to receive a replacement valve. Due to aortic stenosis and other heart valve diseases, thousands of patients undergo surgery each year wherein the defective native heart valve is replaced by a prosthetic valve, either bioprosthetic or mechanical. Another less drastic method for treating defective valves is through repair or reconstruction, which is typically used on minimally calcified valves. The problem with surgical therapy is the significant insult it imposes on these chronically ill patients with high morbidity and mortality rates associated with surgical repair.
When the valve is replaced, surgical implantation of the prosthetic valve typically requires an open-chest surgery during which the heart is stopped and patient placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (a so-called “heart-lung machine”). In one common surgical procedure, the diseased native valve leaflets are excised and a prosthetic valve is sutured to the surrounding tissue at the valve annulus. Because of the trauma associated with the procedure and the attendant duration of extracorporeal blood circulation, some patients do not survive the surgical procedure or die shortly thereafter. It is well known that the risk to the patient increases with the amount of time required on extracorporeal circulation. Due to these risks, a substantial number of patients with defective valves are deemed inoperable because their condition is too frail to withstand the procedure. By some estimates, about 30 to 50% of the subjects suffering from aortic stenosis who are older than 80 years cannot be operated on for aortic valve replacement.
Because of the drawbacks associated with conventional open-heart surgery, percutaneous and minimally-invasive surgical approaches are garnering intense attention. In one technique, a prosthetic valve is configured to be implanted in a much less invasive procedure by way of catheterization. For instance, U.S. Pat. No. 5,411,552 to Andersen et al. describes a collapsible valve percutaneously introduced in a compressed state through a catheter and expanded in the desired position by balloon inflation. Although these remote implantation techniques have shown great promise for treating certain patients, replacing a valve via surgical intervention is still the preferred treatment procedure. One hurdle to the acceptance of remote implantation is resistance from doctors who are understandably anxious about converting from an effective, if imperfect, regimen to a novel approach that promises great outcomes but is relatively foreign. In conjunction with the understandable caution exercised by surgeons in switching to new techniques of heart valve replacement, regulatory bodies around the world are moving slowly as well. Numerous successful clinical trials and follow-up studies are in process, but much more experience with these new technologies will be required before they are completely accepted.
Accordingly, there is a need for an improved device and associated method of use wherein a prosthetic valve can be surgically implanted in a body channel in a more efficient procedure that reduces the time required on extracorporeal circulation. It is desirable that such a device and method be capable of helping patients with defective valves that are deemed inoperable because their condition is too frail to withstand a lengthy conventional surgical procedure. The present invention addresses these needs and others.
Various embodiments of the present application provide prosthetic valves and methods of use for replacing a defective native valve in a human heart. Certain embodiments are particularly well adapted for use in a surgical procedure for quickly and easily replacing a heart valve while minimizing time using extracorporeal circulation (i.e., bypass pump).
In one embodiment, a method for treating a native aortic valve in a human heart to replaces the function of the aortic valve, comprises: 1) accessing a native valve through an opening in a chest; 2) advancing an expandable base stent to the site of a native aortic valve, the base stent being radially compressed during the advancement; 3) radially expanding the base stent at the site of the native aortic valve; 4) advancing a valve component within a lumen of the base stent; and 5) expanding a coupling stent on the valve component to mechanically couple to the base stent in a quick and efficient manner.
In one variation, the base stent may comprise a metallic frame. In one embodiment, at least a portion of the metallic frame is made of stainless steel. In another embodiment, at least a portion of the metallic frame is made of a shape memory material. The valve member may take a variety of forms. In one preferred embodiment, the valve component comprises biological tissue. In another variation of this method, the metallic frame is viewed under fluoroscopy during advancement of the prosthetic valve toward the native aortic valve.
The native valve leaflets may be removed before delivering the prosthetic valve. Alternatively, the native leaflets may be left in place to reduce surgery time and to provide a stable base for fixing the base stent within the native valve. In one advantage of this method, the native leaflets recoil inward to enhance the fixation of the metallic frame in the body channel. When the native leaflets are left in place, a balloon or other expansion member may be used to push the valve leaflets out of the way and thereby dilate the native valve before implantation of the base stent. The native annulus may be dilated between 1.5-5 mm from their initial orifice size to accommodate a larger sized prosthetic valve.
In accordance with a preferred aspect, a prosthetic heart valve system comprises a base stent adapted to anchor against a heart valve annulus and defining an orifice therein, and a valve component connected to the base stent. The valve component includes a prosthetic valve defining therein a non-expandable, non-collapsible orifice, and an expandable coupling stent extending from an inflow end thereof. The coupling stent has a contracted state for delivery to an implant position and an expanded state configured for outward connection to the base stent. The base stent may also be expandable with a contracted state for delivery to an implant position adjacent a heart valve annulus and an expanded state sized to contact and anchor against the heart valve annulus. Desirably, the base stent and also the coupling stent are plastically expandable.
In one embodiment, the prosthetic valve comprises a commercially available valve having a sewing ring, and the coupling stent attaches to the sewing ring. The contracted state of the coupling stent may be conical, tapering down in a distal direction. The coupling stent preferably comprises a plurality of radially expandable struts at least some of which are arranged in rows, wherein the distalmost row has the greatest capacity for expansion from the contracted state to the expanded state. Still further, the strut row farthest from the prosthetic valve has alternating peaks and valleys, wherein the base stent includes apertures into which the peaks of the coupling stent may project to interlock the two stents. The base stent may include a plurality of radially expandable struts between axially-oriented struts, wherein at least some of the axially-oriented struts have upper projections that demark locations around the stent.
A method of delivery and implant of a prosthetic heart valve system is also disclosed herein, comprising the steps of:
The base stent may be plastically expandable, and the method further comprises advancing the expandable base stent in a contracted state to the implant position, and plastically expanding the base stent to an expanded state in contact with and anchored to the heart valve annulus, in the process increasing the orifice size of the heart valve annulus by at least 10%, or by 1.5-5 mm Desirably, the prosthetic valve of the valve component is selected to have an orifice size that matches the increased orifice size of the heart valve annulus. The method may also include mounting the base stent over a mechanical expander, and deploying the base stent at the heart valve annulus using the mechanical expander.
One embodiment of the method further includes mounting the valve component on a holder having a proximal hub and lumen therethrough. The holder mounts on the distal end of a handle having a lumen therethrough, and the method including passing a balloon catheter through the lumen of the handle and the holder and within the valve component, and inflating a balloon on the balloon catheter to expand the coupling stent. The valve component mounted on the holder may be packaged separately from the handle and the balloon catheter. Desirably, the contracted state of the coupling stent is conical, and the balloon on the balloon catheter has a larger distal expanded end than its proximal expanded end so as to apply greater expansion deflection to the coupling stent than to the prosthetic valve.
In the method where the coupling stent is conical, the coupling stent may comprise a plurality of radially expandable struts at least some of which are arranged in rows, wherein the row farthest from the prosthetic valve has the greatest capacity for expansion from the contracted state to the expanded state.
The method may employ a coupling stent with a plurality of radially expandable struts, wherein a row farthest from the prosthetic valve has alternating peaks and valleys. The distal end of the coupling stent thus expands more than the rest of the coupling stent so that the peaks in the row farthest from the prosthetic valve project outward into apertures in the base stent. Both the base stent and the coupling stent may have a plurality of radially expandable struts between axially-oriented struts, wherein the method includes orienting the coupling stent so that its axially-oriented struts are out of phase with those of the base stent to increase retention therebetween.
Another aspect described herein is a system for delivering a valve component including a prosthetic valve having a non-expandable, non-collapsible orifice, and an expandable coupling stent extending from an inflow end thereof, the coupling stent having a contracted state for delivery to an implant position and an expanded state. The delivery system includes a valve holder connected to a proximal end of the valve component, a balloon catheter having a balloon, and a handle configured to attach to a proximal end of the valve holder and having a lumen for passage of the catheter, wherein the balloon extends distally through the handle, past the holder and through the valve component. In the system, the prosthetic valve is preferably a commercially available valve having a sewing ring to which the coupling stent attaches.
The contracted state of the coupling stent in the delivery system may be conical, tapering down in a distal direction. Furthermore, the balloon catheter further may include a generally conical nose cone on a distal end thereof that extends through the valve component and engages a distal end of the coupling stent in its contracted state. Desirably, the handle comprises a proximal section and a distal section that may be coupled together in series to form a continuous lumen, wherein the distal section is adapted to couple to the hub of the holder to enable manual manipulation of the valve component using the distal section prior to connection with the proximal handle section. Preferably, the balloon catheter and proximal handle section are packaged together with the balloon within the proximal section lumen.
Alternatively, the valve component mounted on the holder may be packaged separately from the handle and the balloon catheter.
A further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention are set forth in the following description and claims, particularly when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like parts bear like reference numerals.
The invention will now be explained and other advantages and features will appear with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings wherein:
The present invention attempts to overcome drawbacks associated with conventional, open-heart surgery, while also adopting some of the techniques of newer technologies which decrease the duration of the treatment procedure. The prosthetic heart valves of the present invention are primarily intended to be delivered and implanted using conventional surgical techniques, including the aforementioned open-heart surgery. There are a number of approaches in such surgeries, all of which result in the formation of a direct access pathway to the particular heart valve annulus. For clarification, a direct access pathway is one that permits direct (i.e., naked eye) visualization of the heart valve annulus. In addition, it will be recognized that embodiments of the two-stage prosthetic heart valves described herein may also be configured for delivery using percutaneous approaches, and those minimally-invasive surgical approaches that require remote implantation of the valve using indirect visualization.
One primary aspect of the present invention is a two-stage prosthetic heart valve wherein the tasks of implanting a tissue anchor first and then a valve member are distinct and certain advantages result. The exemplary two-stage prosthetic heart valve of the present invention has an expandable base stent secured to tissue in the appropriate location using a balloon or other expansion technique. A hybrid valve member that has non-expandable and expandable portions then couples to the base stent in a separate or sequential operation. By utilizing an expandable base stent, the duration of the initial anchoring operation is greatly reduced as compared with a conventional sewing procedure utilizing an array of sutures. The expandable base stent may simply be radially expanded outward into contact with the implantation site, or may be provided with additional anchoring means, such as barbs. The operation may be carried out using a conventional open-heart approach and cardiopulmonary bypass. In one advantageous feature, the time on bypass is greatly reduced due to the relative speed of implanting the expandable base stent.
For definitional purposes, the term “base stent,” refers to a structural component of a heart valve that is capable of attaching to tissue of a heart valve annulus. The base stents described herein are most typically tubular stents, or stents having varying shapes or diameters. A stent is normally formed of a biocompatible metal wire frame, such as stainless steel or Nitinol. Other base stents that could be used with valves of the present invention include rigid rings, spirally-wound tubes, and other such tubes that fit tightly within a valve annulus and define an orifice therethrough for the passage of blood, or within which a valve member is mounted. It is entirely conceivable, however, that the base stent could be separate clamps or hooks that do not define a continuous periphery. Although such devices sacrifice some dynamic stability, and speed and ease of deployment, these devices could be configured to work in conjunction with a particular valve member.
A distinction between self-expanding and balloon-expanding stents exists in the field. A self-expanding stent may be crimped or otherwise compressed into a small tube and possesses sufficient elasticity to spring outward by itself when a restraint such as an outer sheath is removed. In contrast, a balloon-expanding stent is made of a material that is substantially less elastic, and indeed must be plastically expanded from the inside out when converting from a compressed diameter to an expanded. It should be understood that the term balloon-expanding stents encompasses plastically-expandable stents, whether or not a balloon is used to actually expand it. The material of the stent plastically deforms after application of a deformation force such as an inflating balloon or expanding mechanical fingers. Both alternatives will be described below. Consequently, the term “balloon-expandable stent” should be considered to refer to the material or type of the stent as opposed to the specific expansion means.
The term “valve member” refers to that component of a heart valve that possesses the fluid occluding surfaces to prevent blood flow in one direction while permitting it in another. As mentioned above, various constructions of valve members are available, including those with flexible leaflets and those with rigid leaflets or a ball and cage arrangement. The leaflets may be bioprosthetic, synthetic, or metallic.
A primary focus of the present invention is a two-stage prosthetic heart valve having a first stage in which a base stent secures to a valve annulus, and a subsequent second stage in which a valve member connects to the base stent. It should be noted that these stages can be done almost simultaneously, such as if the two components were mounted on the same delivery device, or can be done in two separate clinical steps, with the base stent deployed using a first delivery device, and then the valve member using another delivery device. It should also be noted that the term “two-stage” refers to the two primary steps of anchoring structure to the annulus and then connecting a valve member, which does not necessarily limit the valve to just two parts.
Another potential benefit of a two-stage prosthetic heart valve, including a base stent and a valve member, is that the valve member may be replaced after implantation without replacing the base stent. That is, an easily detachable means for coupling the valve member and base stent may be used that permits a new valve member to be implanted with relative ease. Various configurations for coupling the valve member and base stent are described herein.
It should be understood, therefore, that certain benefits of the invention are independent of whether the base stent is expandable or not. That is, various embodiments illustrate an expandable base stent coupled to a hybrid valve member that has non-expandable and expandable portions. However, the same coupling structure may be utilized for a non-expandable base stent and hybrid valve member. Therefore, the invention should be interpreted via the appended claims.
As a point of further definition, the term “expandable” is used herein to refer to a component of the heart valve capable of expanding from a first, delivery diameter to a second, implantation diameter. An expandable structure, therefore, does not mean one that might undergo slight expansion from a rise in temperature, or other such incidental cause. Conversely, “non-expandable” should not be interpreted to mean completely rigid or a dimensionally stable, as some slight expansion of conventional “non-expandable” heart valves, for example, may be observed.
In the description that follows, the term “body channel” is used to define a blood conduit or vessel within the body. Of course, the particular application of the prosthetic heart valve determines the body channel at issue. An aortic valve replacement, for example, would be implanted in, or adjacent to, the aortic annulus. Likewise, a mitral valve replacement will be implanted at the mitral annulus. Certain features of the present invention are particularly advantageous for one implantation site or the other. However, unless the combination is structurally impossible, or excluded by claim language, any of the heart valve embodiments described herein could be implanted in any body channel.
With continued reference to
As will be described in more detail below, the prosthetic valve system includes a valve component that may be quickly and easily connected to the stent 24. It should be noted here that the base stents described herein can be a variety of designs, including having the diamond/chevron-shaped openings shown or other configurations. The material depends on the mode of delivery (i.e., balloon- or self-expanding), and the stent can be bare strut material or covered to promote ingrowth and/or to reduce paravalvular leakage. For example, a suitable cover that is often used is a sleeve of fabric such as Dacron.
One primary advantage of the prosthetic heart valve system of the present invention is the speed of deployment. Therefore, the base stent 24 may take a number of different configurations as long as it does not require the time-consuming process of suturing it to the annulus. For instance, another possible configuration for the base stent 24 is one that is not fully expandable like the tubular stent as shown. That is, the base stent 24 may have a non-expandable ring-shaped orifice from which an expandable skirt stent or series of anchoring barbs deploy.
When used for aortic valve replacement, the prosthetic valve 34 preferably has three flexible leaflets which provide the fluid occluding surfaces to replace the function of the native valve leaflets. In various preferred embodiments, the valve leaflets may be taken from another human heart (cadaver), a cow (bovine), a pig (porcine valve) or a horse (equine). In other preferred variations, the valve member may comprise mechanical components rather than biological tissue. The three leaflets are supported by three commissural posts. A ring is provided along the base portion of the valve member.
In a preferred embodiment, the prosthetic valve 34 partly comprises a commercially available, non-expandable prosthetic heart valve, such as the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna® Aortic Heart Valve available from Edwards Lifesciences of Irvine, Calif. In this sense, a “commercially available” prosthetic heart valve is an off-the-shelf (i.e., suitable for stand-alone sale and use) prosthetic heart valve defining therein a non-expandable, non-collapsible orifice and having a sewing ring capable of being implanted using sutures through the sewing ring in an open-heart, surgical procedure. The particular approach into the heart used may differ, but in surgical procedures the heart is stopped and opened, in contrast to beating heart procedures where the heart remains functional. To reiterate, the terms “non-expandable” and “non-collapsible” should not be interpreted to mean completely rigid and dimensionally stable, merely that the valve is not expandable/collapsible like some proposed minimally-invasively or percutaneously-delivered valves.
An implant procedure therefore involves first delivering and expanding the base stent 24 at the aortic annulus, and then coupling the valve component 30 including the valve 34 thereto. Because the valve 34 is non-expandable, the entire procedure is typically done using the conventional open-heart technique. However, because the base stent 24 is delivered and implanted by simple expansion, and then the valve component 30 attached thereto by expansion, both without suturing, the entire operation takes less time. This hybrid approach will also be much more comfortable to surgeons familiar with the open-heart procedures and commercially available heart valves.
Moreover, the relatively small change in procedure coupled with the use of proven heart valves should create a much easier regulatory path than strictly expandable, remote procedures. Even if the system must be validated through clinical testing to satisfy the Pre-Market Approval (PMA) process with the FDA (as opposed to a 510k submission), the acceptance of the valve component 30 at least will be greatly streamlined with a commercial heart valve that is already approved, such as the Magna® Aortic Heart Valve.
The prosthetic valve 34 is provided with an expandable coupling mechanism in the form of the coupling stent 36 for securing the valve to the base stent 24. Although the coupling stent 36 is shown, the coupling mechanism may take a variety of different forms, but eliminates the need for connecting sutures and provides a rapid connection means.
Because the base stent 24 expands before the valve component 30 attaches thereto, a higher strength stent (self- or balloon-expandable) configuration may be used. For instance, a relatively robust base stent 24 may be used to push the native leaflets aside, and the absent valve component 30 is not damaged or otherwise adversely affected during the high-pressure base stent deployment. After the base stent 24 deploys in the body channel, the valve component 30 connects thereto by deploying the coupling stent 36, which may be somewhat more lightweight requiring smaller expansion forces. Also, the balloon 40 may have a larger distal expanded end than its proximal expanded end so as to apply more force to the coupling stent 36 than to the prosthetic valve 34. In this way, the prosthetic valve 34 and flexible leaflets therein are not subject to high expansion forces from the balloon 40. Indeed, although balloon deployment is shown, the coupling stent 36 may also be a self-expanding type of stent. In the latter configuration, the nose cone 38 is adapted to retain the coupling stent 36 in its constricted state prior to position in the valve component 30 within the base stent 24.
As noted above, the base stents described herein could include barbs or other tissue anchors to further secure the stent to the tissue, or to secure the coupling stent 36 to the base stent 24. Further, the barbs could be deployable (e.g., configured to extend or be pushed radially outward) by the expansion of a balloon. Preferably, the coupling stent 36 is covered to promote in-growth and/or to reduce paravalvular leakage, such as with a Dacron tube or the like.
The catheter 52 and the nose cone 38 pass through a hollow handle 60 having a proximal section 62 and a distal section 64. A distal end of the distal handle section 64 firmly attaches to a hub 66 of a valve holder 68, which in turn attaches to the prosthetic heart valve component 30. Details of the valve holder 68 will be given below with reference to
The two sections 62, 64 of the handle 60 are desirably formed of a rigid material, such as a molded plastic, and coupled to one another to form a relatively rigid and elongated tube for manipulating the prosthetic valve component 30 attached to its distal end. In particular, the distal section 64 may be easily coupled to the holder hub 66 and therefore provide a convenient tool for managing the valve component 30 during pre-surgical rinsing steps. For this purpose, the distal section 64 features a distal tubular segment 70 that couples to the holder hub 66, and an enlarged proximal segment 72 having an opening on its proximal end that receives a tubular extension 74 of the proximal handle section 62.
In a preferred embodiment, the prosthetic valve component 30 incorporates bioprosthetic tissue leaflets and is packaged and stored attached to the holder 68 but separate from the other introduction system 50 components. Typically, bioprosthetic tissue is packaged and stored in a jar with preservative solution for long shelf life, while the other components are packaged and stored dry.
When assembled as seen in
As explained above with respect to
It should be understood that the prosthetic valve component 30 may be implanted at the valve annulus with a pre-deployed base stent 24, as explained above, or without. The coupling stent 36 may be robust enough to anchor the valve component 30 directly against the native annulus (with or without leaflet excision) in the absence of the base stent 24. Consequently, the description of the system 50 for introducing the prosthetic heart valve should be understood in the context of operating with or without the pre-deployed base stent 24.
Prior to a further description of operation of the delivery system 50, a more detailed explanation of the valve component 30 and valve holder 68 is necessary.
The coupling stent 36 preferably attaches to the ventricular (or inflow) aspect of the valve's sewing ring 42 during the manufacturing process in a way that preserves the integrity of the sewing ring and prevents reduction of the valve's effective orifice area (EOA). Desirably, the coupling stent 36 will be continuously sutured to sewing ring 42 in a manner that maintains the outer contours of the sewing ring. Sutures may be passed through apertures or eyelets in the stent skeleton, or through a cloth covering that in turn is sewn to the skeleton. Other connection solutions include prongs or hooks extending inward from the stent, ties, Velcro, snaps, adhesives, etc. Alternatively, the coupling stent 36 may be more rigidly connected to rigid components within the prosthetic valve 34. During implant, therefore, the surgeon can seat the sewing ring 42 against the annulus in accordance with a conventional surgery. This gives the surgeon familiar tactile feedback to ensure that the proper patient-prosthesis match has been achieved. Moreover, placement of the sewing ring 42 against the outflow side of the annulus helps reduce the probability of migration of the valve component 30 toward the ventricle.
The coupling stent 36 may be a pre-crimped, tapered, 316L stainless steel balloon-expandable stent, desirably covered by a polyester skirt 88 to help seal against paravalvular leakage and promote tissue ingrowth once implanted within the base stent 24 (see
The coupling stent 36 desirably comprises a plurality of sawtooth-shaped or otherwise angled, serpentine or web-like struts 90 connected to three generally axially-extending posts 92. As will be seen below, the posts 92 desirably feature a series of evenly spaced apertures to which sutures holding the polyester skirt 88 in place may be anchored. As seen best in
It should be understood that the particular configuration of the coupling stent, whether possessing straight or curvilinear struts 90, may be modified as needed. There are numerous stent designs, as described below with reference to
Still with reference to
In one embodiment, the holder 68 is formed of a rigid polymer such as Delrin or polypropylene that is transparent to increase visibility of an implant procedure. As best seen in
The gaps between the lengths making up the reinforcing ring 126 permit the stent 120 to be matched with a number of different sized prosthetic valves 34. That is, the majority of the stent 120 is expandable having a variable diameter, and providing gaps in the reinforcing ring 126 allows the upper end to also have a variable diameter so that it can be shaped to match the size of the corresponding sewing ring. This reduces manufacturing costs as correspondingly sized stents need not be used for each different sized valve.
As mentioned above, the two-component valve systems described herein utilize an outer or base stent (such as base stent 24) and a valve component having an inner or valve stent (such as coupling stent 36). The valve and its stent advance into the lumen of the pre-anchored outer stent and the valve stent expands to join the two stents and anchor the valve into its implant position. It is important that the inner stent and outer stent be correctly positioned both circumferentially and axially to minimize subsequent relative motion between the stents. Indeed, for the primary application of an aortic valve replacement, the circumferential position of the commissures of the valve relative to the native commissures is very important. A number of variations of coupling stent that attach to the valve component have been shown and described above.
The flattened view of
The length of the projections 190 above the upper row of middle struts 182 may also be calibrated to help the surgeon axially position the stent 180. For example, the distance from the tips of the projections 190 to the level of the native annulus could be determined, and the projections 190 located at a particular anatomical landmark such as just below the level of the coronary ostia.
An undulating dashed line 192 in
The stent 200 also exhibits different rows of middle struts 182. Specifically, a first row 202a defines V's having relatively shallow angles, a second row 202b defines V's with medium angles, and a third row 202c defined V's with more acute angles. The different angles formed by the middle struts 182 in these rows helps shape the stent into a conical form when expanded. There is, the struts in the third row 202c which is farthest from the prosthetic valve have the greatest capacity for expansion to accommodate the transition from the collapsed conical shape of the stent to the expanded tubular shape.
Those of skill in the art will understand that there are many ways to increase retention between the two stents. For example, the peaks and troughs of the web-like expandable struts on the two stents could be oriented out-of-phase or in-phase. In a preferred embodiment the peaks and troughs of the two stents are out of phase so that expansion of the inner stent causes its peaks to deform outwardly into the troughs of the outer stent, and thereby provide interlocking structure therebetween. The variations described above provide a number of permutations of this cooperation.
Additionally, axial projections on one or both of stents could be bent to provide an interference with the other stent. For example, the lower ends of the axial struts 108 in the stent 36 shown in
As an alternative to simple linear movement of the plunger 232, it may also be threadingly received within the barrel 230. Still further, the plunger 232 may be formed in two parts freely rotatable with respect to one another, with a proximal part threadingly received within the barrel 230 while a distal part does not rotate with respect to the barrel and merely cams the fingers 226 outward. Still further, a mechanical linkage may be used instead of a camming action whereby levers hinged together create outward movement of the fingers 226. And even further still, a hybrid version using an inflatable balloon with mechanical parts mounted on the outside of the balloon may be utilized. Those of skill in the art will understand that numerous variants on this mechanism are possible, the point being that balloon expansion is not only vehicle.
Desirably, the fingers 226 have a contoured exterior profile such that they expand the base stent 222 into a particular shape that better fits the heart valve annulus. For instance, the base stent 222 may be expanded into an hourglass shape with wider upper and lower ends and a smaller midsection, and/or an upper end may be formed with a tri-lobular shape to better fit the aortic sinuses. In the latter case, the tri-lobular shape is useful for orienting the base stent 222 upon implant, and also for orienting the coupling stent of the valve component that is received therewithin.
In another advantageous feature, the two-component valve system illustrated in the preceding figures provides a device and method that substantially reduces the time of the surgical procedure as compared with replacement valves that are sutured to the tissue after removing the native leaflets. For example, the stent 24 of
In addition to speeding up the implant process, the present invention having the pre-anchored stent, within which the valve and its stent mount, permits the annulus to be expanded to accommodate a larger valve than otherwise would be possible. In particular, clinical research has shown that the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) can be significantly expanded by a balloon-expandable stent and still retain normal functioning. In this context, “significantly expanding” the LVOT means expanding it by at least 10%, more preferably between about 10-30%. In absolute terms, the LVOT may be expanded 1.5-5 mm depending on the nominal orifice size. This expansion of the annulus creates an opportunity to increase the size of a surgically implanted prosthetic valve. The present invention employs a balloon-expandable base stent, and a balloon-expandable valve stent. The combination of these two stents permits expansion of the LVOT at and just below the aortic annulus, at the inflow end of the prosthetic valve. The interference fit created between the outside of the base stent and the LVOT secures the valve without pledgets or sutures taking up space, thereby allowing for placement of the maximum possible valve size. A larger valve size than would otherwise be available with conventional surgery enhances volumetric blood flow and reduces the pressure gradient through the valve.
It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that embodiments of the present invention provide important new devices and methods wherein a valve may be securely anchored to a body lumen in a quick and efficient manner. Embodiments of the present invention provide a means for implanting a prosthetic valve in a surgical procedure without requiring the surgeon to suture the valve to the tissue. Accordingly, the surgical procedure time is substantially decreased. Furthermore, in addition to providing a base stent for the valve, the stent may be used to maintain the native valve in a dilated condition. As a result, it is not necessary for the surgeon to remove the native leaflets, thereby further reducing the procedure time.
It will also be appreciated that the present invention provides an improved system wherein a valve member may be replaced in a more quick and efficient manner. More particularly, it is not necessary to cut any sutures in order to remove the valve. Rather, the valve member may be disconnected from the stent (or other base stent) and a new valve member may be connected in its place. This is an important advantage when using biological tissue valves or other valves having limited design lives.
While the invention has been described in its preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that the words which have been used are words of description and not of limitation. Therefore, changes may be made within the appended claims without departing from the true scope of the invention.
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/248,706, filed Jan. 15, 2020, now U.S. Pat. No. 10,799,346, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/423,378, filed Feb. 2, 2017, now U.S. Pat. No. 10,182,909, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/684,267, filed Apr. 10, 2015, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,561,100, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/660,780, filed Oct. 25, 2012, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,005,278, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/635,471, filed Dec. 10, 2009, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,308,798, which claims the benefit of U.S. Patent Application No. 61/139,398, filed Dec. 19, 2008, the entire disclosures all of which are incorporated by reference for all purposes.
|3320972||High et al.||May 1967||A|
|3371352||Siposs et al.||Mar 1968||A|
|3546710||Shumakov et al.||Dec 1970||A|
|3628535||Ostrowsky et al.||Dec 1971||A|
|4035849||Angell et al.||Jul 1977||A|
|4079468||Liotta et al.||Mar 1978||A|
|4084268||Ionescu et al.||Apr 1978||A|
|4106129||Carpentier et al.||Aug 1978||A|
|4217665||Bex et al.||Aug 1980||A|
|4259753||Liotta et al.||Apr 1981||A|
|4340091||Skelton et al.||Jul 1982||A|
|4343048||Ross et al.||Aug 1982||A|
|4364126||Rosen et al.||Dec 1982||A|
|4388735||Ionescu et al.||Jun 1983||A|
|4441216||Ionescu et al.||Apr 1984||A|
|4451936||Carpentier et al.||Jun 1984||A|
|4490859||Black et al.||Jan 1985||A|
|4535483||Klawitter et al.||Aug 1985||A|
|4605407||Black et al.||Aug 1986||A|
|4626255||Reichart et al.||Dec 1986||A|
|4629459||Ionescu et al.||Dec 1986||A|
|4687483||Fisher et al.||Aug 1987||A|
|4702250||Ovil et al.||Oct 1987||A|
|4705516||Barone et al.||Nov 1987||A|
|4725274||Lane et al.||Feb 1988||A|
|4731074||Rousseau et al.||Mar 1988||A|
|4778461||Pietsch et al.||Oct 1988||A|
|4790843||Carpentier et al.||Dec 1988||A|
|4865600||Carpentier et al.||Sep 1989||A|
|4888009||Lederman et al.||Dec 1989||A|
|4914097||Oda et al.||Apr 1990||A|
|5010892||Colvin et al.||Apr 1991||A|
|5163955||Love et al.||Nov 1992||A|
|5316016||Adams et al.||May 1994||A|
|5326370||Love et al.||Jul 1994||A|
|5326371||Love et al.||Jul 1994||A|
|5397351||Pavcnik et al.||Mar 1995||A|
|5423887||Love et al.||Jun 1995||A|
|5425741||Lemp et al.||Jun 1995||A|
|5431676||Dubrul et al.||Jul 1995||A|
|5449385||Religa et al.||Sep 1995||A|
|5476510||Eberhardt et al.||Dec 1995||A|
|5488789||Religa et al.||Feb 1996||A|
|5489298||Love et al.||Feb 1996||A|
|5533515||Coller et al.||Jul 1996||A|
|5549665||Vesely et al.||Aug 1996||A|
|5562729||Purdy et al.||Oct 1996||A|
|5571215||Sterman et al.||Nov 1996||A|
|5573007||Bobo, Sr.||Nov 1996||A|
|5578076||Krueger et al.||Nov 1996||A|
|5584803||Stevens et al.||Dec 1996||A|
|5606928||Religa et al.||Mar 1997||A|
|5618307||Donlon et al.||Apr 1997||A|
|5626607||Malecki et al.||May 1997||A|
|5628789||Vanney et al.||May 1997||A|
|5662705||Love et al.||Sep 1997||A|
|5693090||Unsworth et al.||Dec 1997||A|
|5695503||Krueger et al.||Dec 1997||A|
|5713952||Vanney et al.||Feb 1998||A|
|5716370||Williamson, IV et al.||Feb 1998||A|
|5728064||Burns et al.||Mar 1998||A|
|5728151||Garrison et al.||Mar 1998||A|
|5735894||Krueger et al.||Apr 1998||A|
|5755782||Love et al.||May 1998||A|
|5776187||Krueger et al.||Jul 1998||A|
|5776188||Shepherd et al.||Jul 1998||A|
|5800527||Jansen et al.||Sep 1998||A|
|5814097||Sterman et al.||Sep 1998||A|
|5814098||Hinnenkamp et al.||Sep 1998||A|
|5840081||Andersen et al.||Nov 1998||A|
|5848969||Panescu et al.||Dec 1998||A|
|5855563||Kaplan et al.||Jan 1999||A|
|5855601||Bessler et al.||Jan 1999||A|
|5891160||Williamson, IV et al.||Apr 1999||A|
|5895420||Mirsch, II et al.||Apr 1999||A|
|5908450||Gross et al.||Jun 1999||A|
|5928281||Huynh et al.||Jul 1999||A|
|5957949||Leonhardt et al.||Sep 1999||A|
|5972004||Williamson, IV et al.||Oct 1999||A|
|5984959||Robertson et al.||Nov 1999||A|
|5984973||Girard et al.||Nov 1999||A|
|6010531||Donlon et al.||Jan 2000||A|
|6042607||Williamson, IV et al.||Mar 2000||A|
|6059827||Fenton, Jr.||May 2000||A|
|6066160||Colvin et al.||May 2000||A|
|6074418||Buchanan et al.||Jun 2000||A|
|6099475||Seward et al.||Aug 2000||A|
|6106550||Magovern et al.||Aug 2000||A|
|6117091||Young et al.||Sep 2000||A|
|6126007||Kari et al.||Oct 2000||A|
|6162233||Williamson, IV et al.||Dec 2000||A|
|6168614||Andersen et al.||Jan 2001||B1|
|6176877||Buchanan et al.||Jan 2001||B1|
|6197054||Hamblin, Jr. et al.||Mar 2001||B1|
|6231561||Frazier et al.||May 2001||B1|
|6241765||Griffin et al.||Jun 2001||B1|
|6264611||Ishikawa et al.||Jul 2001||B1|
|6283127||Sterman et al.||Sep 2001||B1|
|6287339||Vazquez et al.||Sep 2001||B1|
|6290674||Roue et al.||Sep 2001||B1|
|6312465||Griffin et al.||Nov 2001||B1|
|6322526||Rosenman et al.||Nov 2001||B1|
|6328727||Frazier et al.||Dec 2001||B1|
|6375620||Oser et al.||Apr 2002||B1|
|6402780||Williamson, IV||Jun 2002||B2|
|6425916||Garrison et al.||Jul 2002||B1|
|6440164||Di Matteo et al.||Aug 2002||B1|
|6582462||Andersen et al.||Jun 2003||B1|
|6585766||Huynh et al.||Jul 2003||B1|
|6651671||Donlon et al.||Nov 2003||B1|
|6652578||Bailey et al.||Nov 2003||B2|
|6682559||Myers et al.||Jan 2004||B2|
|6685739||DiMatteo et al.||Feb 2004||B2|
|6730118||Spenser et al.||May 2004||B2|
|6733525||Yang et al.||May 2004||B2|
|6764508||Roehe et al.||Jul 2004||B1|
|6773457||Ivancev et al.||Aug 2004||B2|
|6786925||Schoon et al.||Sep 2004||B1|
|6805711||Quijano et al.||Oct 2004||B2|
|6893460||Spenser et al.||May 2005||B2|
|6939365||Fogarty et al.||Sep 2005||B1|
|7018404||Holmberg et al.||Mar 2006||B2|
|7037333||Myers et al.||May 2006||B2|
|7070616||Majercak et al.||Jul 2006||B2|
|7097659||Woolfson et al.||Aug 2006||B2|
|7101396||Artof et al.||Sep 2006||B2|
|7147663||Berg et al.||Dec 2006||B1|
|7153324||Case et al.||Dec 2006||B2|
|7195641||Palmaz et al.||Mar 2007||B2|
|7201772||Schwammenthal et al.||Apr 2007||B2|
|7238200||Lee et al.||Jul 2007||B2|
|RE40377||Williamson, IV et al.||Jun 2008||E|
|7513909||Lane et al.||Apr 2009||B2|
|7556647||Drews et al.||Jul 2009||B2|
|7569072||Berg et al.||Aug 2009||B2|
|7998151||St. Goar et al.||Aug 2011||B2|
|8308798||Pintor et al.||Nov 2012||B2|
|8323337||Gurskis et al.||Dec 2012||B2|
|8696742||Pintor et al.||Apr 2014||B2|
|8734505||Goldfarb et al.||May 2014||B2|
|8906083||Obermiller et al.||Dec 2014||B2|
|9005278||Pintor et al.||Apr 2015||B2|
|9216082||Von Segesser et al.||Dec 2015||B2|
|20010021872||Bailey et al.||Sep 2001||A1|
|20010039435||Roue et al.||Nov 2001||A1|
|20010039436||Frazier et al.||Nov 2001||A1|
|20010041914||Frazier et al.||Nov 2001||A1|
|20010041915||Roue et al.||Nov 2001||A1|
|20010049492||Frazier et al.||Dec 2001||A1|
|20020015970||Murray et al.||Feb 2002||A1|
|20020026238||Lane et al.||Feb 2002||A1|
|20020151970||Garrison et al.||Oct 2002||A1|
|20020188348||DiMatteo et al.||Dec 2002||A1|
|20030023300||Bailey et al.||Jan 2003||A1|
|20030023303||Palmaz et al.||Jan 2003||A1|
|20030036795||Andersen et al.||Feb 2003||A1|
|20030055495||Pease et al.||Mar 2003||A1|
|20030105519||Fasol et al.||Jun 2003||A1|
|20030114913||Spenser et al.||Jun 2003||A1|
|20030130729||Paniagua et al.||Jul 2003||A1|
|20030149478||Figulla et al.||Aug 2003||A1|
|20030236568||Hojeibane et al.||Dec 2003||A1|
|20040019374||Hojeibane et al.||Jan 2004||A1|
|20040034411||Quijano et al.||Feb 2004||A1|
|20040044406||Woolfson et al.||Mar 2004||A1|
|20040106976||Bailey et al.||Jun 2004||A1|
|20040122514||Fogarty et al.||Jun 2004||A1|
|20040122516||Fogarty et al.||Jun 2004||A1|
|20040167573||Williamson et al.||Aug 2004||A1|
|20040206363||McCarthy et al.||Oct 2004||A1|
|20040210304||Seguin et al.||Oct 2004||A1|
|20040210305||Shu et al.||Oct 2004||A1|
|20040236411||Sarac et al.||Nov 2004||A1|
|20040260389||Case et al.||Dec 2004||A1|
|20040260390||Sarac et al.||Dec 2004||A1|
|20050010285||Lambrecht et al.||Jan 2005||A1|
|20050027348||Case et al.||Feb 2005||A1|
|20050043760||Fogarty et al.||Feb 2005||A1|
|20050060029||Le et al.||Mar 2005||A1|
|20050065594||DiMatteo et al.||Mar 2005||A1|
|20050075713||Biancucci et al.||Apr 2005||A1|
|20050075717||Nguyen et al.||Apr 2005||A1|
|20050075718||Nguyen et al.||Apr 2005||A1|
|20050075720||Nguyen et al.||Apr 2005||A1|
|20050075724||Svanidze et al.||Apr 2005||A1|
|20050080454||Drews et al.||Apr 2005||A1|
|20050096738||Cali et al.||May 2005||A1|
|20050137686||Salahieh et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137687||Salahieh et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137688||Salahieh et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137689||Salahieh et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137690||Salahieh et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137691||Salahieh et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137692||Haug et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137694||Haug et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137695||Salahieh et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050137702||Haug et al.||Jun 2005||A1|
|20050165477||Anduiza et al.||Jul 2005||A1|
|20050165479||Drews et al.||Jul 2005||A1|
|20050182483||Osborne et al.||Aug 2005||A1|
|20050192665||Spenser et al.||Sep 2005||A1|
|20050203617||Forster et al.||Sep 2005||A1|
|20050203618||Sharkawy et al.||Sep 2005||A1|
|20050234546||Nugent et al.||Oct 2005||A1|
|20050240259||Sisken et al.||Oct 2005||A1|
|20050240263||Fogarty et al.||Oct 2005||A1|
|20050283231||Haug et al.||Dec 2005||A1|
|20060025857||Bergheim et al.||Feb 2006||A1|
|20060028771||Kudo et al.||Feb 2006||A1|
|20060052867||Revuelta et al.||Mar 2006||A1|
|20060058871||Zakay et al.||Mar 2006||A1|
|20060058872||Salahieh et al.||Mar 2006||A1|
|20060095125||Chinn et al.||May 2006||A1|
|20060122634||Ino et al.||Jun 2006||A1|
|20060122692||Gilad et al.||Jun 2006||A1|
|20060136054||Berg et al.||Jun 2006||A1|
|20060149360||Schwammenthal et al.||Jul 2006||A1|
|20060154230||Cunanan et al.||Jul 2006||A1|
|20060161249||Realyvasquez et al.||Jul 2006||A1|
|20060167543||Bailey et al.||Jul 2006||A1|
|20060195183||Navia et al.||Aug 2006||A1|
|20060195184||Lane et al.||Aug 2006||A1|
|20060195185||Lane et al.||Aug 2006||A1|
|20060195186||Drews et al.||Aug 2006||A1|
|20060207031||Cunanan et al.||Sep 2006||A1|
|20060229708||Powell et al.||Oct 2006||A1|
|20060235508||Lane et al.||Oct 2006||A1|
|20060246888||Bender et al.||Nov 2006||A1|
|20060253191||Salahieh et al.||Nov 2006||A1|
|20060259134||Schwammenthal et al.||Nov 2006||A1|
|20060259135||Navia et al.||Nov 2006||A1|
|20060259136||Nguyen et al.||Nov 2006||A1|
|20060265056||Nguyen et al.||Nov 2006||A1|
|20060271175||Woolfson et al.||Nov 2006||A1|
|20060287717||Rowe et al.||Dec 2006||A1|
|20060287719||Rowe et al.||Dec 2006||A1|
|20060293745||Carpentier et al.||Dec 2006||A1|
|20070005129||Damm et al.||Jan 2007||A1|
|20070010876||Salahieh et al.||Jan 2007||A1|
|20070010877||Salahieh et al.||Jan 2007||A1|
|20070016285||Lane et al.||Jan 2007||A1|
|20070016286||Herrmann et al.||Jan 2007||A1|
|20070016288||Gurskis et al.||Jan 2007||A1|
|20070028243||Berry et al.||Feb 2007||A1|
|20070043435||Seguin et al.||Feb 2007||A1|
|20070100440||Figulla et al.||May 2007||A1|
|20070142906||Figulla et al.||Jun 2007||A1|
|20070142907||Moaddeb et al.||Jun 2007||A1|
|20070150053||Gurskis et al.||Jun 2007||A1|
|20070156233||Kapadia et al.||Jul 2007||A1|
|20070162103||Case et al.||Jul 2007||A1|
|20070162107||Haug et al.||Jul 2007||A1|
|20070162111||Fukamachi et al.||Jul 2007||A1|
|20070185565||Schwammenthal et al.||Aug 2007||A1|
|20070203575||Forster et al.||Aug 2007||A1|
|20070203576||Lee et al.||Aug 2007||A1|
|20070213813||Von Segesser et al.||Sep 2007||A1|
|20070225801||Drews et al.||Sep 2007||A1|
|20070239269||Dolan et al.||Oct 2007||A1|
|20070255398||Yang et al.||Nov 2007||A1|
|20070260305||Drews et al.||Nov 2007||A1|
|20070265701||Gurskis et al.||Nov 2007||A1|
|20070270944||Bergheim et al.||Nov 2007||A1|
|20070288089||Gurskis et al.||Dec 2007||A1|
|20080021546||Patz et al.||Jan 2008||A1|
|20080033543||Gurskis et al.||Feb 2008||A1|
|20080119875||Ino et al.||May 2008||A1|
|20080154356||Obermiller et al.||Jun 2008||A1|
|20090036903||Ino et al.||Feb 2009||A1|
|20090192599||Lane et al.||Jul 2009||A1|
|20090192605||Gloss et al.||Jul 2009||A1|
|20090192606||Gloss et al.||Jul 2009||A1|
|20100161036||Pintor et al.||Jun 2010||A1|
|20100249894||Oba et al.||Sep 2010||A1|
|20100249908||Chau et al.||Sep 2010||A1|
|20100331972||Pintor et al.||Dec 2010||A1|
|20110022165||Oba et al.||Jan 2011||A1|
|20110040372||Hansen et al.||Feb 2011||A1|
|20110147251||Hodshon et al.||Jun 2011||A1|
|20120065729||Pintor et al.||Mar 2012||A1|
|20120141656||Orr et al.||Jun 2012||A1|
|20120150288||Hodshon et al.||Jun 2012||A1|
|20130053949||Pintor et al.||Feb 2013||A1|
|20130116777||Pintor et al.||May 2013||A1|
|20140058194||Soletti et al.||Feb 2014||A1|
|20140079758||Hall et al.||Mar 2014||A1|
|2 279 134||Dec 1994||GB|
|20210077255 A1||Mar 2021||US|