Details of television systems


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  • H04N5/00
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H04N5/04Synchronising H04N5/05Synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation H04N5/06Generation of synchronising signals H04N5/067Arrangements or circuits at the transmitter end H04N5/0675for mixing the synchronising signals with the picture signal or mutually H04N5/073for mutually locking plural sources of synchronising signals H04N5/0733for distributing synchronisation pulses to different TV cameras H04N5/0736using digital storage buffer techniques H04N5/08Separation of synchronising signals from picture signals H04N5/10Separation of line synchronising signal from frame synchronising signal or vice-versa H04N5/12Devices in which the synchronising signals are only operative if a phase difference occurs between synchronising and synchronised scanning devices H04N5/123whereby the synchronisation signal directly commands a frequency generator H04N5/126whereby the synchronisation signal indirectly commands a frequency generator H04N5/14Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region H04N5/141Beam current control means H04N5/142Edging; Contouring H04N5/144Movement detection H04N5/145Movement estimation H04N5/147Scene change detection H04N5/148Video amplifiers H04N5/16Circuitry for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of signal Circuitry for preservation of black or white level H04N5/165to maintain the black level constant H04N5/18by means of "clamp" circuit operated by switching circuit H04N5/185for the black level H04N5/20Circuitry for controlling amplitude response H04N5/202Gamma control H04N5/205for correcting amplitude versus frequency characteristic H04N5/208for compensating for attenuation of high frequency components H04N5/21Circuitry for suppressing or minimising disturbance H04N5/211Ghost signal cancellation H04N5/213Circuitry for suppressing or minimising impulsive noise H04N5/217in picture signal generation in cameras comprising an electronic image sensor H04N5/2171Dust removal H04N5/2173in solid-state picture signal generation H04N5/2175Suppression of excedentary charges H04N5/2176Correction or equalization of amplitude response H04N5/2178by initial calibration H04N5/222Studio circuitry Studio devices Studio equipment; Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor H04N5/2222Prompting H04N5/2224related to virtual studio applications H04N5/2226Determination of depth image H04N5/2228Video assist systems used in motion picture production H04N5/225Television cameras; Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor H04N5/2251Constructional details H04N5/2252Housings H04N5/2253Mounting of pick-up device, electronic image sensor, deviation or focusing coils H04N5/2254Mounting of optical parts H04N5/2256provided with illuminating means H04N5/2257Mechanical and electrical details of cameras or camera modules for embedding in other devices H04N5/2258Cameras using two or more image sensors H04N5/2259Means for changing the camera field of view without moving the camera body H04N5/228Circuit details for pick-up tubes H04N5/2283Beam current control H04N5/2286during retrace periods H04N5/232Devices for controlling television cameras H04N5/23203Remote control signaling for cameras or for parts of camera H04N5/23206using a network H04N5/23209for interchangeable parts of camera involving control signals based on electric image signals provided by an electronic image sensor H04N5/23212Focusing based on image signal provided by the electronic image sensor H04N5/23216Control of parameters H04N5/23219Control of camera operation based on recognized human faces, facial parts, facial expressions or other parts of the human body H04N5/23222Computer-aided capture of images H04N5/23225Input of new or changed control program into camera control means H04N5/23229comprising further processing of the captured image without influencing the image pickup process H04N5/23232by using more than one image in order to influence resolution, frame rate or aspect ratio H04N5/23235by using a single image in order to influence the resolution H04N5/23238Control of image capture or reproduction to achieve a very large field of view H04N5/23241Control of camera operation in relation to power supply H04N5/23245Operation mode switching of cameras H04N5/23248for stable pick-up of the scene in spite of camera body vibration H04N5/23251Motion detection H04N5/23254based on the image signal H04N5/23258based on additional sensors H04N5/23261by distinguishing pan/tilt from motion H04N5/23264Vibration or motion blur correction H04N5/23267performed by a processor H04N5/2327performed by controlling the image sensor readout H04N5/23274by controlling the scanning position H04N5/23277by combination of a plurality of images sequentially taken H04N5/2328performed by mechanical compensation H04N5/23283with a variable apex prism H04N5/23287by shifting the lens/sensor position H04N5/2329Motion occurring during a rolling shutter mode H04N5/23293Electronic Viewfinder H04N5/23296Control of means for changing angle of the field of view H04N5/235Circuitry or methods for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object H04N5/2351Circuitry for evaluating the brightness variations of the object H04N5/2352Combination of two or more compensation controls H04N5/2353by influencing the exposure time H04N5/2354by influencing the scene brightness using illuminating means H04N5/2355by increasing the dynamic range of the final image compared to the dynamic range of the electronic image sensor H04N5/2356Bracketing i.e. taking a series of images with varying H04N5/2357Detection of flicker frequency or flicker suppression H04N5/2358by influencing at least one of the pick-up tube voltages H04N5/238by influencing the optical part of the camera H04N5/243by influencing the picture signal H04N5/247Arrangements of television cameras H04N5/253Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques H04N5/257Picture signal generators using flying-spot scanners H04N5/262Studio circuits H04N5/2621Cameras specially adapted for the electronic generation of special effects during image pickup H04N5/2622Signal amplitude transition in the zone between image portions H04N5/2624for obtaining an image which is composed of whole input images H04N5/2625for obtaining an image which is composed of images from a temporal image sequence H04N5/2627for providing spin image effect, 3D stop motion effect or temporal freeze effect H04N5/2628Alteration of picture size, shape, position or orientation H04N5/265Mixing H04N5/268Signal distribution or switching H04N5/272Means for inserting a foreground image in a background image H04N5/2723Insertion of virtual advertisement; Replacing advertisements physical present in the scene by virtual advertisement H04N5/275Generation of keying signals H04N5/278Subtitling H04N5/28Mobile studios H04N5/30Transforming light or analogous information into electric information H04N5/32Transforming X-rays H04N5/3205using subtraction imaging techniques H04N5/321with video transmission of fluoroscopic images H04N5/325Image enhancement H04N5/33Transforming infra-red radiation H04N5/332Multispectral imaging comprising at least a part of the infrared region H04N5/335using solid-state image sensors [SSIS] H04N5/3355with digital output of the sensor cell H04N5/341Extracting pixel data from an image sensor by controlling scanning circuits H04N5/3415for increasing the field of view by combining the outputs of a plurality of sensors H04N5/343by switching between different modes of operation using different resolutions or aspect ratios H04N5/345by partially reading an SSIS array H04N5/3452by reading contiguous pixels in one direction within a read portion of the array H04N5/3454by reading contiguous pixels in two directions within a read portion of the array H04N5/3456by skipping some contiguous pixels within the read portion of the array H04N5/3458by preserving the color pattern with or without loss of information H04N5/347by combining or binning pixels in SSIS H04N5/349for increasing resolution by shifting the sensor relative to the scene H04N5/351Control of the SSIS depending on the scene H04N5/353Control of the integration time H04N5/3532by controlling rolling shutters H04N5/3535with different integration times within the sensor H04N5/3537depending on the spectral component H04N5/355Control of the dynamic range H04N5/35509involving a non-linear response H04N5/35518being of the logarithmic type H04N5/35527with a response composed of multiple slopes H04N5/35536involving multiple exposures H04N5/35545being simultaneously taken H04N5/35554with different integration times H04N5/35563with pixels having different sensibilities within the sensor H04N5/35572sequentially taken H04N5/35581with different integration times H04N5/3559by controlling the amount of charge storable in the pixel H04N5/357Noise processing H04N5/3572the noise resulting only from the lens unit H04N5/3575involving a correlated sampling function H04N5/3577for reducing electromagnetic interferences H04N5/359applied to excess charges produced by the exposure H04N5/3591for the control of blooming H04N5/3592by controlling anti-blooming drains H04N5/3594by evacuation via the output or reset lines H04N5/3595for the control of smearing H04N5/3597being the residual charges remaining after reading an image H04N5/3598applied when a phenomenon of inverted contrast occurs H04N5/361applied to dark current H04N5/363applied to reset noise H04N5/365applied to fixed-pattern noise H04N5/3651for non-uniformity detection and correction H04N5/3653between adjacent sensors or output registers for reading a single image H04N5/3655by using a reference source H04N5/3656the reference source being based on the scene itself H04N5/3658for reducing the column or line fixed pattern noise H04N5/367applied to defects H04N5/3675by defect estimation performed on the scene signal H04N5/369SSIS architecture Circuitry associated therewith H04N5/3692Line sensors H04N5/3694using abutted sensors forming a long line H04N5/3696SSIS characterized by non-identical, non-equidistant or non-planar pixel layout, sensor embedding other types of pixels not meant for producing an image signal H04N5/3698Circuitry for controlling the generation or the management of the power supply H04N5/372Charge-coupled device [CCD] sensors Time delay and integration [TDI] registers or shift registers specially adapted for SSIS H04N5/37206TDI registers or shift registers specially adapted for SSIS H04N5/37213Details of transfer/readout registers; Split readout registers and multiple readout registers H04N5/3722using frame interline transfer [FIT] H04N5/3725using frame transfer [FT] H04N5/3728using interline transfer [IT] H04N5/374Addressed sensors H04N5/3741comprising control or output lines sharing a plurality of functions H04N5/3742Details of transfer or readout registers; split readout registers and multiple readout registers H04N5/3743using TDI registers H04N5/3745having additional components embedded within a pixel or connected to a group of pixels within a sensor matrix H04N5/37452comprising additional storage means H04N5/37455comprising A/D, V/T, V/F, I/T or I/F converters H04N5/37457comprising amplifiers shared between a plurality of pixels H04N5/376Adressing circuits H04N5/3765Timing or clock signal generating circuits H04N5/378Readout circuits H04N5/38Transmitter circuitry H04N5/40Modulation circuits H04N5/42for transmitting at will black-and-white or colour signals H04N5/44Receiver circuitry H04N5/4401for the reception of a digital modulated video signal H04N5/4403User interfaces for controlling a television receiver or set top box [STB] through a remote control device H04N5/4446IF amplifier circuits specially adapted for B&W TV H04N5/4448for frame-grabbing H04N5/445for displaying additional information H04N5/44504Circuit details of the additional information generator H04N5/44508multiplexed with a digital video signal H04N5/44513for displaying or controlling a single function of one single apparatus H04N5/44543Menu-type displays H04N5/44582the additional information being controlled by a remote control apparatus H04N5/44591the additional information being displayed in a separate window H04N5/45Picture in picture H04N5/455Demodulation-circuits H04N5/46for receiving on more than one standard at will H04N5/50Tuning indicators Automatic tuning control H04N5/505Invisible or silent tuning H04N5/52Automatic gain control H04N5/53Keyed automatic gain control H04N5/54for positively-modulated picture signals H04N5/56for negatively-modulated picture signals H04N5/57Control of contrast or brightness H04N5/58in dependence upon ambient light H04N5/59in dependence upon beam current of cathode ray tube H04N5/60for the sound signals H04N5/602for digital sound signals H04N5/605according to the NICAM system H04N5/607for more than one sound signal H04N5/62Intercarrier circuits H04N5/63Generation or supply of power specially adapted for television receivers H04N5/64Constructional details of receivers H04N5/642Disposition of sound reproducers H04N5/645Mounting of picture tube on chassis or in housing H04N5/65Holding-devices for protective discs or for picture masks H04N5/655Construction or mounting of chassis H04N5/66Transforming electric information into light information H04N5/68Circuit details for cathode-ray display tubes H04N5/70Circuit details for electroluminescent devices H04N5/72Modifying the appearance of television pictures by optical filters or diffusing screens H04N5/74Projection arrangements for image reproduction H04N5/7408Direct viewing projectors H04N5/7416involving the use of a spatial light modulator H04N5/7425the modulator being a dielectric deformable layer controlled by an electron beam H04N5/7441the modulator being an array of liquid crystal cells H04N5/7458the modulator being an array of deformable mirrors H04N5/7475Constructional details of television projection apparatus H04N5/7491of head mounted projectors H04N5/76Television signal recording H04N5/7605on discs or drums H04N5/765Interface circuits between an apparatus for recording and another apparatus H04N5/77between a recording apparatus and a television camera H04N5/772the recording apparatus and the television camera being placed in the same enclosure H04N5/775between a recording apparatus and a television receiver H04N5/7755the recorder being connected to, or coupled with, the antenna of the television receiver H04N5/78using magnetic recording H04N5/7805Recording or playback not using inductive heads H04N5/781on discs or drums H04N5/782on tape H04N5/78206Recording using a special track configuration H04N5/78213involving recording in different depths of the magnetic tape H04N5/7822with stationary magnetic heads H04N5/7824with rotating magnetic heads H04N5/7826involving helical scanning of the magnetic tape H04N5/78263for recording on tracks inclined relative to the direction of movement of the tape H04N5/78266using more than one track for the recording of one television field or frame H04N5/7828involving transversal scanning of the magnetic tape H04N5/783Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate H04N5/784on a sheet H04N5/80using electrostatic recording H04N5/805on discs or drums H04N5/82using deformable thermoplastic recording medium H04N5/83on discs or drums H04N5/84using optical recording H04N5/843on film H04N5/846the film moving intermittently H04N5/85on discs or drums H04N5/87Producing a motion picture film from a television signal H04N5/89using holographic recording H04N5/90on discs or drums H04N5/903using variable electrical capacitive recording H04N5/907using static stores H04N5/91Television signal processing therefor H04N5/911for the suppression of noise H04N5/913for scrambling; for copy protection H04N5/915for field- or frame-skip recording or reproducing H04N5/9155with sound multiplexing H04N5/917for bandwidth reduction H04N5/919by dividing samples or signal segments H04N5/92Transformation of the television signal for recording H04N5/9201involving the multiplexing of an additional signal and the video signal H04N5/9202the additional signal being a sound signal H04N5/9203using time division multiplex H04N5/9204using frequency division multiplex H04N5/9205the additional signal being at least another television signal H04N5/9206the additional signal being a character code signal H04N5/9207for teletext H04N5/9208involving the use of subcodes H04N5/921by recording or reproducing the baseband signal H04N5/923using preemphasis of the signal before modulation and deemphasis of the signal after demodulation H04N5/926by pulse code modulation H04N5/9261involving data reduction H04N5/9262using predictive coding H04N5/9264using transform coding H04N5/9265with processing of the sound signal H04N5/9267using time division multiplex of the PCM audio and PCM video signals H04N5/9268with insertion of the PCM audio signals in the vertical blanking interval of the PCM video signal H04N5/928the sound signal being pulse code modulated and recorded in time division multiplex with the modulated video signal H04N5/93Regeneration of the television signal or of selected parts thereof H04N5/9305involving the mixing of the reproduced video signal with a non-recorded signal H04N5/931for restoring the level of the reproduced signal H04N5/9315the level control being frequency dependent H04N5/932Regeneration of analogue synchronisation signals H04N5/935Regeneration of digital synchronisation signals H04N5/937by assembling picture element blocks in an intermediate store H04N5/94Signal drop-out compensation H04N5/945for signals recorded by pulse code modulation H04N5/95Time-base error compensation H04N5/953by using an analogue memory H04N5/956by using a digital memory with independent write-in and read-out clock generators