Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source


  • CPC
  • G02F1/00
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G02F1/0009Materials therefor G02F1/0018Electro-optical materials G02F1/0027with ferro-electric properties G02F1/0036Magneto-optical materials G02F1/0045Liquid crystals as far as the physical properties are concerned G02F1/0054Structure, phase transitions, NMR, ESR, Moessbauer spectra G02F1/0063Optical properties G02F1/0072Mechanical, acoustic, electro-elastic, magneto-elastic properties G02F1/0081Electric or magnetic properties G02F1/009Thermal properties G02F1/01for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour G02F1/0102Constructional details G02F1/0105Illumination devices G02F1/0107Gaskets, spacers, sealing of the cell; Filling and closing of the cell G02F1/011in optical waveguides G02F1/0115in optical fibres G02F1/0118by controlling the evanescent coupling of light from a fibre into an active G02F1/0121Operation of the device; Circuit arrangements not otherwise provided for G02F1/0123Circuits for the control or stabilisation of the bias voltage G02F1/0126by another light beam G02F1/0128based on electro-mechanical, magneto-mechanical, elasto-optic effects G02F1/0131based on elasto-optic, i.e. photoelastic effect G02F1/0134in optical waveguides G02F1/0136for the control of polarisation G02F1/0147based on thermo-optic effects G02F1/015based on semiconductor elements with at least one potential jump barrier G02F1/017Structures with periodic or quasi periodic potential variation G02F1/01708in an optical wavequide structure G02F1/01716Optically controlled superlattice or quantum well devices G02F1/01725with a non-rectangular quantum well structure G02F1/025in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/03based on ceramics or electro-optical crystals G02F1/0305Constructional arrangements G02F1/0311Structural association of optical elements G02F1/0316Electrodes G02F1/0322Arrangements comprising two or more independently controlled crystals G02F1/0327Operation of the cell; Circuit arrangements G02F1/0333addressed by a beam of charged particles G02F1/0338structurally associated with a photoconductive layer or having photo-refractive properties G02F1/0344controlled by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave component in an electric waveguide G02F1/035in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/0353involving an electro-optic TE-TM mode conversion G02F1/0356controlled by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave component in an electric waveguide structure G02F1/05with ferro-electric properties G02F1/0508specially adapted for gating or modulating in optical waveguides G02F1/0516Operation of the cell; Circuit arrangements G02F1/0525addressed by a beam of charged particles G02F1/0533structurally associated with a photo-conductive layer G02F1/0541using photo-refractive effects G02F1/055the active material being a ceramic G02F1/0551Constructional details G02F1/0553specially adapted for gating or modulating in optical waveguides G02F1/0555Operation of the cell; Circuit arrangements G02F1/0556specially adapted for a particular application G02F1/0558structurally associated with a photoconductive layer or exhibiting photo-refractive properties G02F1/061based on electro-optical organic material G02F1/065in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/07based on electro-optical liquids exhibiting Kerr effect G02F1/073specially adapted for gating or modulating in optical waveguides G02F1/076Operation of the cell; Circuit arrangements G02F1/09based on magneto-optical elements G02F1/091based on magneto-absorption or magneto-reflection G02F1/092Operation of the cell; Circuit arrangements G02F1/093used as non-reciprocal devices G02F1/095in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/0955used as non-reciprocal devices G02F1/11based on acousto-optical elements G02F1/113Circuit or control arrangements G02F1/116using an optically anisotropic medium, wherein the incident and the diffracted light waves have different polarizations G02F1/125in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/13based on liquid crystals G02F1/1303Apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture of LCDs G02F1/1306Details G02F1/1309Repairing; Testing G02F1/1313specially adapted for a particular application G02F1/132Thermal activation of liquid crystals exhibiting a thermo-optic effect G02F1/1323Arrangements for providing a switchable viewing angle G02F1/1326Liquid crystal optical waveguides or liquid crystal cells specially adapted for gating or modulating between optical waveguides G02F1/133Constructional arrangements Operation of liquid crystal cells Circuit arrangements G02F1/13306Circuit arrangements or driving methods for the control of single liquid crystal cells G02F1/13318Circuits comprising a photodetector G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods G02F1/133305Flexible substrates G02F1/133308LCD panel immediate support structure G02F1/13334Plasma addressed liquid crystal cells [PALC] G02F1/133345Insulating layers G02F1/133348Charged-particles G02F1/133351Manufacturing of individual cells out of a plurality of cells G02F1/13336Combining plural substrates to produce large-area displays G02F1/133362Optically addressed liquid crystal cells G02F1/133365Cells in which the active layer comprises a liquid crystalline polymer G02F1/133371Cells with varying thickness of the liquid crystal layer G02F1/133377Cells with plural compartments or having plurality of liquid crystal micro-cells partitioned by walls G02F1/13338Input devices G02F1/133382Heating or cooling of liquid crystal cells other than for activation G02F1/133385with cooling means G02F1/1334based on polymer dispersed liquid crystals G02F1/13342Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals G02F1/1335Structural association of optical devices G02F1/133502Antiglare, refractive index matching layers G02F1/133504Diffusing, scattering, diffracting elements G02F1/133509Filters G02F1/133512Light shielding layers G02F1/133514Colour filters G02F1/133516Methods of making thereof G02F1/133524Light-guides G02F1/133526Lenses G02F1/133528Polarisers G02F1/133533Colour selective polarisers G02F1/133536Reflective polarizers G02F1/133553Reflecting elements G02F1/133555Transflectors G02F1/1336Illuminating devices G02F1/133602Direct backlight G02F1/133603with LEDs G02F1/133604with lamps G02F1/133605including specially adapted reflectors G02F1/133606including a specially adapted diffusing, scattering or light controlling members G02F1/133608including particular frames or supporting means G02F1/133609including means for improving the color mixing G02F1/133611including means for improving the brightness uniformity G02F1/133615Edge-illuminating devices G02F1/133617Illumination with ultra-violet light; Luminescent elements or materials associated to the cell G02F1/13362providing polarised light G02F1/133621providing coloured light G02F1/13363Birefringent elements G02F1/133632with refractive index ellipsoid inclined relative to the LC-layer surface G02F1/133634the refractive index Nz perpendicular to the element surface being different from in-plane refractive indices Nx and Ny G02F1/133636with twisted orientation G02F1/1337Surface-induced orientation of the liquid crystal molecules G02F1/133703by introducing organic surfactant additives into the liquid crystal material G02F1/133707Structures for producing distorted electric fields G02F1/133711by organic films G02F1/133719with coupling agent molecules G02F1/133723Polyimide, polyamide-imide G02F1/133734by obliquely evaporated films G02F1/133753with different alignment orientations or pretilt angles on a same surface G02F1/13378by treatment of the surface G02F1/133784by rubbing G02F1/133788by light irradiation G02F1/1339Gaskets Spacers, also spacers with conducting properties Sealing of the cell G02F1/13392spacers dispersed on the cell substrate G02F1/13394spacers regularly patterned on the cell subtrate G02F1/1341Filling or closing of the cell G02F1/1343Electrodes G02F1/134309characterised by their geometrical arrangement G02F1/134327Segmented G02F1/134336Matrix G02F1/134363for applying an electric field parallel to the substrate G02F1/13439characterised by their electrical, optical, physical properties; materials therefor; method of making G02F1/1345Conductors connecting electrodes to cell terminals G02F1/13452Conductors connecting driver circuitry and terminals of panels G02F1/13454Drivers integrated on the active matrix substrate G02F1/13458Terminal pads G02F1/1347Arrangement of liquid crystal layers or cells in which the final condition of one light beam is achieved by the addition of the effects of two or more layers or cells G02F1/13471in which all the liquid crystal cells or layers remain transparent G02F1/13473for wavelength filtering or for colour display without the use of colour mosaic filters G02F1/13475in which at least one liquid crystal cell or layer is doped with a pleochroic dye G02F1/13476in which at least one liquid crystal cell or layer assumes a scattering state G02F1/135Liquid crystal cells structurally associated with a photoconducting or a ferro-electric layer, the properties of which can be optically or electrically varied G02F1/1354having a particular photoconducting structure or material G02F1/1358the supplementary layer being a ferro-electric layer G02F1/136Liquid crystal cells structurally associated with a semi-conducting layer or substrate G02F1/1362Active matrix addressed cells G02F1/136204Arrangements to prevent high voltage or static electricity failures G02F1/136209Light shielding layers G02F1/136213Storage capacitors associated with the pixel electrode G02F1/136227Through-hole connection of the pixel electrode to the active element through an insulation layer G02F1/13624having more than one switching element per pixel G02F1/136259Repairing; Defects G02F1/136277formed on a semiconductor substrate G02F1/136286Wiring G02F1/1365in which the switching element is a two-electrode device G02F1/1368in which the switching element is a three-electrode device G02F1/137characterised by a particular electro- or magneto-optical effect G02F1/13718based on a change of the texture state of a cholesteric liquid crystal G02F1/13725based on guest-host interaction G02F1/13731based on a field-induced phase transition G02F1/13737in liquid crystals doped with a plechroic dye G02F1/13743based on electrohydrodynamic instabilities or domain formation in liquid crystals G02F1/1375using dynamic scattering G02F1/13762containing luminescent or electroluminescent additives G02F1/13768based on magneto-optical effects G02F1/13781using smectic liquid crystals G02F1/139based on orientation effects in which the liquid crystal remains transparent G02F1/1391Bistable or multi-stable liquid crystal cells G02F1/1392using a field-induced sign-reversal of the dielectric anisotropy G02F1/1393the birefringence of the liquid crystal being electrically controlled G02F1/1395Optically compensated birefringence [OCB]- cells or PI- cells G02F1/1396the liquid crystal being selectively controlled between a twisted state and a non-twisted state G02F1/1397the twist being substantially higher than 90° G02F1/141using ferroelectric liquid crystals G02F1/1416Details of the smectic layer structure G02F1/1418using smectic liquid crystals G02F1/15based on electrochromic elements G02F1/1506based on electrolytic deposition of a non-organic material on or in the vicinity of an electrode G02F1/1508using a solid electrolyte G02F1/1521based on oxidation reduction in organic liquid solutions G02F1/1523based on solid inorganic materials G02F1/1525characterised by a particular ion transporting layer G02F1/1527based on iridium oxide or hydroxide G02F1/153Constructional arrangements G02F1/1533structural features not otherwise provided for G02F1/155Electrodes G02F1/157Structural association of optical devices G02F1/161Gaskets Spacers Sealing of the cell Filling or closing of the cell G02F1/163Operation of electrochromic cells Circuit arrangements G02F1/167based on electrophoresis G02F1/17based on variable absorption elements G02F1/172based on a suspension of orientable dipolar particles G02F1/174based on absorption band-shift G02F1/176using acid- based indicators G02F1/178based on pressure effects G02F1/19based on variable reflection or refraction elements G02F1/195by using frustrated reflection G02F1/21by interference G02F1/216using liquid crystals G02F1/218using semi-conducting materials G02F1/225in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/2252in optical fibres G02F1/2255controlled by a high-frequency electromagnetic component in an electric waveguide structure G02F1/2257the optical waveguides being made of semiconducting material G02F1/23for the control of the colour G02F1/25as to hue or predominant wavelength G02F1/29for the control of the position or the direction of light beams G02F1/292by controlled diffraction or phased-array beam steering G02F1/293by another light beam G02F1/295Analog deflection from or in an optical waveguide structure] G02F1/2955by controlled diffraction or phased-array beam steering G02F1/31Digital deflection G02F1/313in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/3131in optical fibres G02F1/3132of directional coupler type G02F1/3133the optical waveguides being made of semiconducting materials G02F1/3134controlled by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave component in an electric waveguide structure G02F1/3136of interferometric switch type G02F1/3137with intersecting or branching waveguides G02F1/3138the optical waveguides being made of semiconducting materials G02F1/315based on the use of controlled internal reflection G02F1/33Acousto-optical deflection devices G02F1/332comprising a plurality of transducers on the same crystal surface G02F1/335having an optical waveguide structure G02F1/35Non-linear optics G02F1/3501Constructional arrangements of non-linear optical devices G02F1/3511Self-focusing or self-trapping of light; Light-induced birefringence; Induced optical Kerr-effect G02F1/3513Soliton propagation G02F1/3515All-optical modulation, gating, switching G02F1/3517using an interferometer G02F1/3519of Sagnac type G02F1/3521using a directional coupler G02F1/3523Non-linear absorption changing by light G02F1/3525Optical damage G02F1/3526using two-photon emission or absorption processes G02F1/353Frequency conversion G02F1/3532Arrangements of plural nonlinear devices for generating multi-colour light beams G02F1/3534Three-wave interaction G02F1/3536Four-wave interaction G02F1/3538for optical phase conjugation G02F1/3544Particular phase matching techniques G02F1/355characterised by the materials used G02F1/3551Crystals G02F1/3553having the formula MTiOYO4, where M=K, Rb, TI, NH4 or Cs and Y=P or As G02F1/3555Glasses G02F1/3556Semiconductor materials G02F1/3558Poled materials G02F1/361Organic materials G02F1/3611containing Nitrogen G02F1/3612Heterocycles having N as heteroatom G02F1/3613containing Sulfur G02F1/3614Heterocycles having S as heteroatom G02F1/3615containing polymers G02F1/3616having the non-linear optical group in the main chain G02F1/3617having the non-linear optical group in a side chain G02F1/3618Langmuir Blodgett Films G02F1/3619Organometallic compounds G02F1/365in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/37for second-harmonic generation G02F1/377in an optical waveguide structure G02F1/3775with a periodic structure G02F1/383of the optical fibre type G02F1/39for parametric generation or amplification of light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves G02F1/395in optical waveguides G02F1/397Amplification of light by wave mixing involving an interference pattern