Semiconductor lasers


  • CPC
  • H01S5/00
This industry / category may be too specific. Please go to a parent level for more data

Current Industry

Sub Industries

H01S5/0014Measuring characteristics or properties thereof H01S5/0021Degradation or life time measurements H01S5/0028Laser diodes used as detectors H01S5/0035Simulations of laser characteristics H01S5/0042On wafer testing H01S5/005Optical devices external to the laser cavity, specially adapted therefor H01S5/0057Temporal shaping H01S5/0064Anti-reflection devices H01S5/0071Beam steering H01S5/0078Frequency filtering H01S5/0085Modulating the output H01S5/0092Nonlinear frequency conversion H01S5/02Structural details or components not essential to laser action H01S5/0201Separation of the wafer into individual elements H01S5/0202Cleaving H01S5/0203Etching H01S5/0205during growth of the semiconductor body H01S5/0206Substrates H01S5/0207Substrates having a special shape H01S5/0208Semi-insulating substrates H01S5/021Silicon based substrates H01S5/0211Substrates made of ternary or quaternary compounds H01S5/0212with a graded composition H01S5/0213Sapphire, quartz or diamond based substrates H01S5/0215Bonding to the substrate H01S5/0216using an intermediate compound H01S5/0217Removal of the substrate H01S5/0218Substrates comprising semiconducting materials from different groups of the periodic system than the active layer H01S5/022Mountings Housings H01S5/02204including a getter material to absorb contaminations H01S5/02208Shape of the housing H01S5/02212Can-type H01S5/02216Butterfly-type H01S5/0222filled with special gases H01S5/02224Oxygen is contained in the housing H01S5/02228filled with a resin, or the complete housing being made of resin H01S5/02232filled with a liquid H01S5/02236Mounts or sub-mounts H01S5/0224Up-side down mounting H01S5/02244Lead-frames H01S5/02248Mechanically integrated components on a mount or an optical micro-bench H01S5/02252Relative positioning of laser diode and optical components H01S5/02256Details of fixing the laser diode on the mount H01S5/0226using an adhesive H01S5/02264by clamping H01S5/02268Positioning H01S5/02272using soldering H01S5/02276Wire-bonding details H01S5/0228Out-coupling light H01S5/02284with an optical fibre H01S5/02288with a lens H01S5/02292with a beam deflecting element H01S5/02296Details of a window H01S5/024Cooling arrangements H01S5/02407Active cooling H01S5/02415by using a thermo-electric cooler [TEC] H01S5/02423Liquid cooling H01S5/0243Laser is immersed in the coolant H01S5/02438Characterized by cooling of elements other than the laser H01S5/02446Cooling being separate from the laser cooling H01S5/02453Heating H01S5/02461Structure or details of the laser chip to manipulate the heat flow H01S5/02469Passive cooling H01S5/02476Heat spreaders H01S5/02484Sapphire or diamond heat spreaders H01S5/02492CuW heat spreaders H01S5/026Monolithically integrated components H01S5/0261Non-optical elements H01S5/0262Photo-diodes H01S5/0264for monitoring the laser-output H01S5/0265Intensity modulators H01S5/0267Integrated focusing lens H01S5/0268Integrated waveguide grating router H01S5/028Coatings; Treatment of the laser facets H01S5/0281Coatings made of semiconductor materials H01S5/0282Passivation layers or treatments H01S5/0283Optically inactive coating on the facet H01S5/0284Coatings with a temperature dependent reflectivity H01S5/0285Coatings with a controllable reflectivity H01S5/0286Coatings with a reflectivity that is not constant over the facets H01S5/0287Facet reflectivity H01S5/0288Detuned facet reflectivity H01S5/04Processes or apparatus for excitation H01S5/041Optical pumping H01S5/042Electrical excitation; Circuits therefor H01S5/0421characterised by the semiconducting contacting layers H01S5/0422with n- and p-contacts on the same side of the active layer H01S5/0424lateral current injection H01S5/0425Electrodes H01S5/0427for applying modulation to the laser H01S5/0428for applying pulses to the laser H01S5/06Arrangements for controlling the laser output parameters H01S5/0601comprising an absorbing region H01S5/0602which is an umpumped part of the active layer H01S5/0604comprising a non-linear region H01S5/0605Self doubling H01S5/0607by varying physical parameters other than the potential of the electrodes H01S5/0608controlled by light H01S5/0609acting on an absorbing region H01S5/0611wavelength convectors H01S5/0612controlled by temperature H01S5/0614controlled by electric field, i.e whereby an additional electric field is used to tune the bandgap H01S5/0615Q-switching H01S5/0617using memorised or pre-programmed laser characteristics H01S5/0618Details on the linewidth enhancement parameter alpha H01S5/062by varying the potential of the electrodes H01S5/06203Transistor-type lasers H01S5/06206Controlling the frequency of the radiation H01S5/06209in single-section lasers H01S5/06213Amplitude modulation H01S5/06216Pulse modulation or generation H01S5/0622Controlling the frequency of the radiation H01S5/06223using delayed or positive feedback H01S5/06226Modulation at ultra-high frequencies H01S5/0623using the beating between two closely spaced optical frequencies H01S5/06233Controlling other output parameters than intensity or frequency H01S5/06236controlling the polarisation H01S5/0624controlling the near- or far field H01S5/06243controlling the position or direction of the emitted beam H01S5/06246controlling the phase H01S5/0625in multi-section lasers H01S5/06251Amplitude modulation H01S5/06253Pulse modulation H01S5/06255Controlling the frequency of the radiation H01S5/06256with DBR-structure H01S5/06258with DFB-structure H01S5/065Mode locking Mode suppression Mode selection; Self pulsating H01S5/0651Mode control H01S5/0652Coherence lowering or collapse H01S5/0653Mode suppression H01S5/0654Single longitudinal mode emission H01S5/0655Single transverse or lateral mode emission H01S5/0656Seeding H01S5/0657Mode-locking, i.e.generation of pulses at a frequency corresponding to a roundtrip in the cavity H01S5/0658Self-pulsating H01S5/068Stabilisation of laser output parameters H01S5/06804by monitoring an external parameter H01S5/06808by monitoring the electrical laser parameters H01S5/06812by monitoring or fixing the threshold current or other specific points of the L-I or V-I characteristics H01S5/06817Noise reduction H01S5/06821Stabilising other output parameters than intensity or frequency H01S5/06825Protecting the laser H01S5/0683by monitoring the optical output parameters H01S5/06832Stabilising during amplitude modulation H01S5/06835Stabilising during pulse modulation or generation H01S5/06837Stabilising otherwise than by an applied electric field or current H01S5/0687Stabilising the frequency of the laser H01S5/10Construction or shape of the optical resonator H01S5/1003Waveguide having a modified shape along the axis H01S5/1007Branched waveguides H01S5/101Curved waveguide H01S5/1014Tapered waveguide H01S5/1017Waveguide having a void for insertion of materials to change optical properties H01S5/1021Coupled cavities H01S5/1025Extended cavities H01S5/1028Coupling to elements in the cavity H01S5/1032Coupling to elements comprising an optical axis that is not aligned with the optical axis of the active region H01S5/1035Forward coupled structures [DFC] H01S5/1039Details on the cavity length H01S5/1042Optical microcavities H01S5/1046Comprising interactions between photons and plasmons H01S5/105Comprising a photonic bandgap structure H01S5/1053Comprising an active region having a varying composition or cross section in a specific direction H01S5/1057varying composition along the optical axis H01S5/106varying thickness along the optical axis H01S5/1064varying width along the optical axis H01S5/1067comprising nanoparticles H01S5/1071Ring-lasers H01S5/1075Disk lasers with special modes H01S5/1078with means to control the spontaneous emission H01S5/1082with a special facet structure H01S5/1085Oblique facets H01S5/1089Unstable resonators H01S5/1092Multi-wavelength lasing H01S5/1096in a single cavity H01S5/12the resonator having a periodic structure H01S5/1203over only a part of the length of the active region H01S5/1206having a non constant or multiplicity of periods H01S5/1209Sampled grating H01S5/1212Chirped grating H01S5/1215Multiplicity of periods H01S5/1218in superstructured configuration H01S5/1221Detuning between Bragg wavelength and gain maximum H01S5/1225with a varying coupling constant along the optical axis H01S5/1228DFB lasers with a complex coupled grating H01S5/1231Grating growth or overgrowth details H01S5/1234Actively induced grating H01S5/1237Lateral grating H01S5/124incorporating phase shifts H01S5/1243by other means than a jump in the grating period H01S5/1246plurality of phase shifts H01S5/125Distributed Bragg reflector lasers (DBR-lasers) H01S5/14External cavity lasers H01S5/141using a wavelength selective device H01S5/142which comprises an additional resonator H01S5/143Littman-Metcalf configuration H01S5/145Phase conjugate mirrors H01S5/146using a fiber as external cavity H01S5/147having specially shaped fibre H01S5/148using a Talbot cavity H01S5/16Window-type lasers H01S5/162with window regions made by diffusion or disordening of the active layer H01S5/164with window regions comprising semiconductor material with a wider bandgap than the active layer H01S5/166with window regions comprising non-semiconducting materials H01S5/168with window regions comprising current blocking layers H01S5/18Surface-emitting lasers (SE-lasers) H01S5/183having a vertical cavity (VCSE-lasers) H01S5/18302comprising an integrated optical modulator H01S5/18305with emission through the substrate H01S5/18308having a special structure for lateral current or light confinement H01S5/18311using selective oxidation H01S5/18313by oxidizing at least one of the DBR layers H01S5/18316Airgap confined H01S5/18319comprising a periodical structure in lateral directions H01S5/18322Position of the structure H01S5/18325Between active layer and substrate H01S5/18327Structure being part of a DBR H01S5/1833with more than one structure H01S5/18333only above the active layer H01S5/18336only below the active layer H01S5/18338Non-circular shape of the structure H01S5/18341Intra-cavity contacts H01S5/18344characterized by the mesa H01S5/18347Mesa comprising active layer H01S5/1835Non-circular mesa H01S5/18352Mesa with inclined sidewall H01S5/18355having a defined polarisation H01S5/18358containing spacer layers to adjust the phase of the light wave in the cavity H01S5/18361Structure of the reflectors H01S5/18363comprising air layers H01S5/18366Membrane DBR H01S5/18369based on dielectric materials H01S5/18372by native oxidation H01S5/18375based on metal reflectors H01S5/18377comprising layers of different kind of materials H01S5/1838Reflector bonded by wafer fusion or by an intermediate compound H01S5/18383with periodic active regions at nodes or maxima of light intensity H01S5/18386Details of the emission surface for influencing the near- or far-field H01S5/18388Lenses H01S5/18391Aperiodic structuring to influence the near- or far-field distribution H01S5/18394Apertures H01S5/18397Plurality of active layers vertically stacked in a cavity for multi-wavelength emission H01S5/187using a distributed Bragg reflector (SE-DBR-lasers) H01S5/20Structure or shape of the semi-conductor body to guide the optical wave; Confining structures perpendicular to the optical axis H01S5/2004Confining in the direction perpendicular to the layer structure H01S5/2009electron barrier layers H01S5/2013MQW barrier reflection layers H01S5/2018Optical confinement H01S5/2022Absorbing region or layer parallel to the active layer H01S5/2027Reflecting region or layer, parallel to the active layer H01S5/2031characterized by special waveguide layers H01S5/2036Broad area laserse H01S5/204Strongly index guided structures H01S5/2045employing free standing waveguides or air gap confinement H01S5/205Antiguided structures H01S5/2054Methods of obtaining the confinement H01S5/2059by means of particular conductivity zones H01S5/2063obtained by particle bombardment H01S5/2068obtained by radiation treatment or annealing H01S5/2072obtained by vacancy induced diffusion H01S5/2077using lateral bandgap control during growth H01S5/2081using special etching techniques H01S5/2086lateral etch control H01S5/209special etch stop layers H01S5/2095using melting or mass transport H01S5/22having a ridge or stripe structure H01S5/2201in a specific crystallographic orientation H01S5/2202by making a groove in the upper laser structure H01S5/2203with a transverse junction stripe [TJS] structure H01S5/2205comprising special burying or current confinement layers H01S5/2206based on III-V materials H01S5/2207GaAsP based H01S5/2209GaInP based H01S5/221containing aluminium H01S5/2211based on II-VI materials H01S5/2213based on polyimide or resin H01S5/2214based on oxides or nitrides H01S5/2215using native oxidation of semiconductor layers H01S5/2216nitrides H01S5/2218having special optical properties H01S5/2219absorbing H01S5/222having a refractive index lower than that of the cladding layers or outer guiding layers H01S5/2222having special electric properties H01S5/2223hetero barrier blocking layers H01S5/2224semi-insulating semiconductors H01S5/2226semiconductors with a specific doping H01S5/2227special thin layer sequence H01S5/2228quantum wells H01S5/223Buried stripe structure H01S5/2231with inner confining structure only between the active layer and the upper electrode H01S5/2232with inner confining structure between the active layer and the lower electrode H01S5/2234having a structured substrate surface H01S5/2235with a protrusion H01S5/2237with a non-planar active layer H01S5/2238with a terraced structure H01S5/227Buried mesa structure; Striped active layer H01S5/2272grown by a mask induced selective growth H01S5/2275mesa created by etching H01S5/2277double channel planar buried heterostructure [DCPBH] laser H01S5/24having a grooved structure H01S5/30Structure or shape of the active region Materials used for the active region H01S5/3004employing a field effect structure for inducing charge-carriers H01S5/3009MIS or MOS conffigurations H01S5/3013AIIIBV compounds H01S5/3018AIIBVI compounds H01S5/3022AIVBVI compounds H01S5/3027IV compounds H01S5/3031Si H01S5/3036SiC H01S5/304porous Si H01S5/3045diamond H01S5/305characterised by the doping materials used in the laser structure H01S5/3054p-doping H01S5/3059in II-VI materials H01S5/3063using Mg H01S5/3068deep levels H01S5/3072Diffusion blocking layer H01S5/3077plane dependent doping H01S5/3081using amphoteric doping H01S5/3086doping of the active layer H01S5/309doping of barrier layers that confine charge carriers in the laser structure H01S5/3095Tunnel junction H01S5/32comprising PN junctions H01S5/3201incorporating bulkstrain effects H01S5/3202grown on specifically orientated substrates, or using orientation dependent growth H01S5/3203on non-planar substrates to create thickness or compositional variations H01S5/3205with an active layer having a graded composition in the growth direction H01S5/3206ordering or disordering the natural superlattice in ternary or quaternary materials H01S5/3207ordered active layer H01S5/3209disordered active layer H01S5/321having intermediate bandgap layers H01S5/3211characterised by special cladding layers H01S5/3213asymmetric clading layers H01S5/3214comprising materials from other groups of the periodic system than the materials of the active layer H01S5/3215graded composition cladding layers H01S5/3216quantum well or superlattice cladding layers H01S5/3218specially strained cladding layers, other than for strain compensation H01S5/3219explicitly Al-free cladding layers H01S5/322type-II junctions H01S5/3222in AIVBVI compounds H01S5/3223IV compounds H01S5/3224Si H01S5/3226SiC H01S5/3227porous Si H01S5/3228diamond H01S5/323in AIIIBV compounds H01S5/32308emitting light at a wavelength less than 900 nm H01S5/32316comprising only (Al)GaAs H01S5/32325red laser based on InGaP H01S5/32333based on InGaAsP H01S5/32341blue laser based on GaN or GaP H01S5/3235emitting light at a wavelength longer than 1000 nm H01S5/32358containing very small amounts, usually less than 1%, of an additional III or V compound to decrease the band-gap srongly in a non-linear way by the bowing effect H01S5/32366(In)GaAs with small amount of N H01S5/32375In(As)N with small amount of P, or In(As)P with small amount of N H01S5/32383small amount of Thallum (TI) H01S5/32391based onIn(Ga)(As)P H01S5/327in AIIBVI compounds H01S5/34comprising quantum well,or supperlattice structures H01S5/3401having no PN junction H01S5/3402intersubband lasers H01S5/3403having a strained layer structure in which the strain performs a special function H01S5/3404influencing the polarisation H01S5/3406including strain compensation H01S5/3407characterised by special barrier layers H01S5/3408characterised by specially shaped wells H01S5/3409special GRINSCH structures H01S5/341Structures having reduced dimensionality, e.g.quantum wires H01S5/3412quantum box or quantum dash H01S5/3413comprising partially disordered wells or barriers H01S5/3414by vacancy induced interdiffusion H01S5/3415containing details related to carrier capture times into wells or barriers H01S5/3416tunneling through barriers H01S5/3418using transitions from higher quantum levels H01S5/3419intersubband lasers H01S5/342containing short period superlattices [SPS] H01S5/3421layer structure of quantum wells to influence the near/far field H01S5/3422comprising type-II quantum wells or superlattices H01S5/3424comprising freestanding wells H01S5/3425comprising couples wells or superlattices H01S5/3426in AIVBVI compounds H01S5/3427in IV compounds H01S5/3428layer orientation perpendicular to the substrate H01S5/343in AIIIBV compounds H01S5/34306emitting light at a wavelength longer than 1000nm H01S5/34313with a well layer having only As as V-compound H01S5/3432the whole junction comprising only (AI)GaAs H01S5/34326with a well layer based on InGa(Al)P H01S5/34333with a well layer based on Ga(In)N or Ga(In)P H01S5/3434with a well layer comprising at least both As and P as V-compounds H01S5/34346characterised by the materials of the barrier layers H01S5/34353based on (AI)GaAs H01S5/3436based on InGa(Al)P H01S5/34366based on InGa(Al)AS H01S5/34373based on InGa(Al)AsP H01S5/3438based on In(Al)P H01S5/34386explicitly Al-free H01S5/34393not only based on AIIIBV compounds H01S5/347in AIIBVI compounds H01S5/36comprising organic materials H01S5/40Arrangement of two or more semiconductor lasers, not provided for in groups H01S5/02 - H01S5/30 H01S5/4006Injection locking H01S5/4012Beam combining H01S5/4018Lasers electrically in series H01S5/4025Array arrangements H01S5/4031Edge-emitting structures H01S5/4037with active layers in more than one orientation H01S5/4043with vertically stacked active layers H01S5/405Two-dimensional arrays H01S5/4056emitting light in more than one direction H01S5/4062with an external cavity or using internal filters H01S5/4068with lateral coupling by axially offset or by merging waveguides H01S5/4075Beam steering H01S5/4081Near-or far field control H01S5/4087emitting more than one wavelength H01S5/4093Red, green and blue [RGB] generated directly by laser action or by a combination of laser action with nonlinear frequency conversion H01S5/42Arrays of surface emitting lasers H01S5/423having a vertical cavity H01S5/426Vertically stacked cavities H01S5/50Amplifier structures not provided for in groups H01S5/02 - H01S5/30 H01S5/5009the arrangement being polarisation-insensitive H01S5/5018using two or more amplifiers or multiple passes through the same amplifier H01S5/5027Concatenated amplifiers H01S5/5036the arrangement being polarisation-selective H01S5/5045the arrangement having a frequency filtering function H01S5/5054in which the wavelength is transformed by non-linear properties of the active medium H01S5/5063operating above threshold H01S5/5072Gain clamping H01S5/5081specifically standing wave amplifiers H01S5/509Wavelength converting amplifier