Light guides


  • CPC
  • G02B6/00
This industry / category may be too specific. Please go to a parent level for more data

Current Industry

Sub Industries

G02B6/0001specially adapted for lighting devices or systems G02B6/0003the light guides being doped with fluorescent agents G02B6/0005the light guides being of the fibre type G02B6/0006Coupling light into the fibre G02B6/0008the light being emitted at the end of the fibre G02B6/001the light being emitted along at least a portion of the lateral surface of the fibre G02B6/0011the light guides being planar or of plate-like form G02B6/0013Means for improving the coupling-in of light from the light source into the light guide G02B6/0015provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it G02B6/0016Grooves, prisms, gratings, scattering particles or rough surfaces G02B6/0018Redirecting means on the surface of the light guide G02B6/002by shaping at least a portion of the light guide G02B6/0021for housing at least a part of the light source G02B6/0023provided by one optical element, or plurality thereof, placed between the light guide and the light source, or around the light source G02B6/0025Diffusing sheet or layer; Prismatic sheet or layer G02B6/0026Wavelength selective element, sheet or layer G02B6/0028Light guide G02B6/003Lens or lenticular sheet or layer G02B6/0031Reflecting element, sheet or layer G02B6/0033Means for improving the coupling-out of light from the light guide G02B6/0035provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it G02B6/00362-D arrangement of prisms, protrusions, indentations or roughened surfaces G02B6/0038Linear indentations or grooves G02B6/004Scattering dots or dot-like elements G02B6/0041provided in the bulk of the light guide G02B6/0043provided on the surface of the light guide G02B6/0045by shaping at least a portion of the light guide G02B6/0046Tapered light guide G02B6/0048with stepwise taper G02B6/005provided by one optical element, or plurality thereof, placed on the light output side of the light guide G02B6/0051Diffusing sheet or layer G02B6/0053Prismatic sheet or layer; Brightness enhancement element, sheet or layer G02B6/0055Reflecting element, sheet or layer G02B6/0056for producing polarisation effects G02B6/0058varying in density, size, shape or depth along the light guide G02B6/006to produce indicia, symbols, texts or the like G02B6/0061to provide homogeneous light output intensity G02B6/0063for extracting light out both the major surfaces of the light guide G02B6/0065Manufacturing aspects; Material aspects G02B6/0066characterised by the light source being coupled to the light guide G02B6/0068Arrangements of plural sources G02B6/007Incandescent lamp or gas discharge lamp G02B6/0071with elongated shape G02B6/0073Light emitting diode [LED] G02B6/0075Arrangements of multiple light guides G02B6/0076Stacked arrangements of multiple light guides of the same or different cross-sectional area G02B6/0078Side-by-side arrangements G02B6/008of the partially overlapping type G02B6/0081Mechanical or electrical aspects of the light guide and light source in the lighting device peculiar to the adaptation to planar light guides G02B6/0083Details of electrical connections of light sources to drivers, circuit boards, or the like G02B6/0085Means for removing heat created by the light source from the package G02B6/0086Positioning aspects G02B6/0088of the light guide or other optical sheets in the package G02B6/009of the light source in the package G02B6/0091of the light source relative to the light guide G02B6/0093Means for protecting the light guide G02B6/0095Light guides as housings, housing portions, shelves, doors, tiles, windows, or the like G02B6/0096the lights guides being of the hollow type G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating G02B6/02004characterised by the core effective area or mode field radius G02B6/02009Large effective area or mode field radius G02B6/02014Effective area greater than 60 square microns in the C band G02B6/02019Effective area greater than 90 square microns in the C band G02B6/02023Based on higher order modes G02B6/02028Small effective area or mode field radius G02B6/02033Core or cladding made from organic material G02B6/02038with core or cladding having graded refractive index G02B6/02042Multicore optical fibres G02B6/02047Dual mode fibre G02B6/02052comprising optical elements other than gratings G02B6/02057comprising gratings G02B6/02061Grating external to the fibre and in contact with the fibre G02B6/02066Gratings having a surface relief structure G02B6/02071Mechanically induced gratings G02B6/02076Refractive index modulation gratings G02B6/0208characterised by their structure, wavelength response G02B6/02085characterised by the grating profile G02B6/02095Long period gratings G02B6/021characterised by the core or cladding or coating G02B6/02104characterised by the coating external to the cladding G02B6/02109having polarization sensitive features G02B6/02114characterised by enhanced photosensitivity characteristics of the fibre G02B6/02119Photosensitivity profiles determining the grating structure G02B6/02123characterised by the method of manufacture of the grating G02B6/02128Internal inscription, i.e. grating written by light propagating within the fibre G02B6/02133using beam interference G02B6/02138based on illuminating a phase mask G02B6/02142based on illuminating or irradiating an amplitude mask G02B6/02147Point by point fabrication, i.e. grating elements induced one step at a time along the fibre G02B6/02152involving moving the fibre or a manufacturing element, stretching of the fibre G02B6/02171characterised by means for compensating environmentally induced changes G02B6/02176due to temperature fluctuations G02B6/0218using mounting means G02B6/02185based on treating the fibre G02B6/0219based on composition of fibre materials G02B6/02195characterised by means for tuning the grating G02B6/022using mechanical stress G02B6/02204using thermal effects G02B6/02209Mounting means G02B6/02214tailored to obtain the desired dispersion G02B6/02219Characterised by the wavelength dispersion properties in the silica low loss window around 1550 nm G02B6/02223Dual window fibres, i.e. characterised by dispersion properties around 1550 nm and in at least another wavelength window G02B6/02228Dispersion flattened fibres G02B6/02233having at least two dispersion zero wavelengths G02B6/02238Low dispersion slope fibres G02B6/02242having a dispersion slope <0.06 ps/km/nm2 G02B6/02247Dispersion varying along the longitudinal direction G02B6/02252Negative dispersion fibres at 1550 nm G02B6/02257Non-zero dispersion shifted fibres, i.e. having a small negative dispersion at 1550 nm G02B6/02261Dispersion compensating fibres G02B6/02266Positive dispersion fibres at 1550 nm G02B6/02271Non-zero dispersion shifted fibres, i.e. having a small positive dispersion at 1550 nm G02B6/02276Dispersion shifted fibres G02B6/0228Characterised by the wavelength dispersion slope properties around 1550 nm G02B6/02285Characterised by the polarisation mode dispersion [PMD] properties G02B6/0229characterised by nanostructures, i.e. structures of size less than 100 nm G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre G02B6/023having different index layers arranged around the core for guiding light by reflection, i.e. 1D crystal G02B6/02304Core having lower refractive index than cladding G02B6/02309Structures extending perpendicularly or at a large angle to the longitudinal axis of the fibre G02B6/02314Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis G02B6/02319characterised by core or core-cladding interface features G02B6/02323Core having lower refractive index than cladding G02B6/02328Hollow or gas filled core G02B6/02333Core having higher refractive index than cladding G02B6/02338Structured core G02B6/02342characterised by cladding features G02B6/02347Longitudinal structures arranged to form a regular periodic lattice G02B6/02352Complex periodic lattices or multiple interpenetrating periodic lattices G02B6/02357Property of longitudinal structures or background material varies radially and/or azimuthally in the cladding G02B6/02361Longitudinal structures forming multiple layers around the core G02B6/02366Single ring of structures G02B6/02371Cross section of longitudinal structures is non-circular G02B6/02376Longitudinal variation along fibre axis direction G02B6/0238Longitudinal structures having higher refractive index than background material G02B6/02385Comprising liquid G02B6/0239Comprising means for varying the guiding properties G02B6/02395Glass optical fibre with a protective coating G02B6/024with polarisation maintaining properties G02B6/028with core or cladding having graded refractive index G02B6/0281Graded index region forming part of the central core segment G02B6/0283Graded index region external to the central core segment G02B6/0285Graded index layer adjacent to the central core segment and ending at the outer cladding index G02B6/0286Combination of graded index in the central core segment and a graded index layer external to the central core segment G02B6/0288Multimode fibre G02B6/032with non solid core or cladding G02B6/036core or cladding comprising multiple layers G02B6/03605Highest refractive index not on central axis G02B6/03611Highest index adjacent to central axis region G02B6/03616Optical fibres characterised both by the number of different refractive index layers around the central core segment G02B6/03622having 2 layers only G02B6/03627arranged - + G02B6/03633arranged - - G02B6/03638having 3 layers only G02B6/03644arranged - + - G02B6/0365arranged - - + G02B6/03655arranged - + + G02B6/03661having 4 layers only G02B6/03666arranged - + - + G02B6/03672arranged - - + - G02B6/03677arranged - + + - G02B6/03683arranged - - + + G02B6/03688having 5 or more layers G02B6/03694Multiple layers differing in properties other than the refractive index G02B6/04formed by bundles of fibres G02B6/06the relative position of the fibres being the same at both ends G02B6/065with dynamic image improvement G02B6/08with fibre bundle in form of plate G02B6/10of the optical waveguide type G02B6/102for infra-red and ultra-violet radiation G02B6/105having optical polarisation effects G02B6/107Subwavelength-diameter waveguides G02B6/12of the integrated circuit kind G02B6/12002Three-dimensional structures G02B6/12004Combinations of two or more optical elements G02B6/12007forming wavelength selective elements G02B6/12009comprising arrayed waveguide grating [AWG] devices G02B6/12011characterised by the arrayed waveguides G02B6/12014characterised by the wavefront splitting or combining section G02B6/12016characterised by the input or output waveguides G02B6/12019characterised by the optical interconnection to or from the AWG devices G02B6/12021Comprising cascaded AWG devices; AWG multipass configuration; Plural AWG devices integrated on a single chip G02B6/12023characterised by means for reducing the polarisation dependence G02B6/12026characterised by means for reducing the temperature dependence G02B6/12028based on a combination of materials having a different refractive index temperature dependence G02B6/1203using mounting means G02B6/12033characterised by means for configuring the device G02B6/122basic optical elements G02B6/1221made from organic materials G02B6/1223high refractive index type G02B6/1225comprising photonic band-gap structures or photonic lattices G02B6/1226involving surface plasmon interaction G02B6/1228Tapered waveguides G02B6/124Geodesic lenses or integrated gratings G02B6/1245Geodesic lenses G02B6/125Bends, branchings or intersections G02B6/126using polarisation effects G02B6/13Integrated optical circuits characterised by the manufacturing method G02B6/131by using epitaxial growth G02B6/132by deposition of thin films G02B6/134by substitution by dopant atoms G02B6/1342using diffusion G02B6/1345using ion exchange G02B6/1347using ion implantation G02B6/136by etching G02B6/138by using polymerisation G02B6/14Mode converters G02B6/24Coupling light guides G02B6/241Light guide terminations G02B6/243as light absorbers G02B6/245Removing protective coverings of light guides before coupling G02B6/25Preparing the ends of light guides for coupling G02B6/255Splicing of light guides G02B6/2551using thermal methods G02B6/2552reshaping or reforming of light guides for coupling using thermal heating G02B6/2553Splicing machines G02B6/2555Alignment or adjustment devices for aligning prior to splicing G02B6/2556including a fibre supporting member inclined to the bottom surface of the alignment means G02B6/2557using deformable flexure members, flexible hinges or pivotal arms G02B6/2558Reinforcement of splice joint G02B6/26Optical coupling means G02B6/262Optical details of coupling light into, or out of, or between fibre ends G02B6/264with optical elements between opposed fibre ends which perform a function other than beam splitting G02B6/266the optical element being an attenuator G02B6/268for modal dispersion control G02B6/27with polarisation selective and adjusting means G02B6/2706as bulk elements, i.e. free space arrangements external to a light guide G02B6/2713cascade of polarisation selective or adjusting operations G02B6/272comprising polarisation means for beam splitting and combining G02B6/2726in or on light guides G02B6/2733Light guides evanescently coupled to polarisation sensitive elements G02B6/274based on light guide birefringence G02B6/2746comprising non-reciprocal devices G02B6/2753characterised by their function or use G02B6/276Removing selected polarisation component of light G02B6/2766Manipulating the plane of polarisation from one input polarisation to another output polarisation G02B6/2773Polarisation splitting or combining G02B6/278Controlling polarisation mode dispersion [PMD] G02B6/2786Reducing the polarisation degree G02B6/2793Controlling polarisation dependent loss G02B6/28having data bus means G02B6/2804forming multipart couplers without wavelength selective elements G02B6/2808using a mixing element which evenly distributes an input signal over a number of outputs G02B6/2813based on multimode interference effect G02B6/2817using reflective elements to split or combine optical signals G02B6/2821using lateral coupling between contiguous fibres to split or combine optical signals G02B6/2826using mechanical machining means for shaping of the couplers G02B6/283couplers being tunable or adjustable G02B6/2835formed or shaped by thermal treatment G02B6/2843the couplers having polarisation maintaining or holding properties G02B6/2848having refractive means G02B6/2852using tapping light guides arranged sidewardly G02B6/2856formed or shaped by thermal heating means G02B6/2861using fibre optic delay lines and optical elements associated with them G02B6/287Structuring of light guides to shape optical elements with heat application G02B6/293with wavelength selective means G02B6/29301based on a phased array of light guides G02B6/29302based on birefringence or polarisation G02B6/29304operating by diffraction G02B6/29305as bulk element G02B6/29307components assembled in or forming a solid transparent unitary block G02B6/29308Diffractive element having focusing properties G02B6/2931Diffractive element operating in reflection G02B6/29311Diffractive element operating in transmission G02B6/29313characterised by means for controlling the position or direction of light incident to or leaving the diffractive element G02B6/29314by moving or modifying the diffractive element G02B6/29316Light guides comprising a diffractive element G02B6/29317Light guides of the optical fibre type G02B6/29319With a cascade of diffractive elements or of diffraction operations G02B6/2932comprising a directional router G02B6/29322Diffractive elements of the tunable type G02B6/29323Coupling to or out of the diffractive element through the lateral surface of the light guide G02B6/29325of the slab or planar or plate like form G02B6/29326Diffractive elements having focusing properties G02B6/29328Diffractive elements operating in reflection G02B6/29329Diffractive elements operating in transmission G02B6/29331operating by evanescent wave coupling G02B6/29332Wavelength selective couplers, i.e. based on evanescent coupling between light guides G02B6/29334Grating-assisted evanescent light guide couplers, i.e. comprising grating at or functionally associated with the coupling region between the light guides G02B6/29335Evanescent coupling to a resonator cavity G02B6/29337Cavities of the linear kind G02B6/29338Loop resonators G02B6/2934Fibre ring resonators G02B6/29341Loop resonators operating in a whispering gallery mode evanescently coupled to a light guide G02B6/29343Cascade of loop resonators G02B6/29344operating by modal interference or beating, i.e. of transverse modes G02B6/29346operating by wave or beam interference G02B6/29347Loop interferometers G02B6/29349Michelson or Michelson/Gires-Tournois configuration G02B6/2935Mach-Zehnder configuration G02B6/29352in a light guide G02B6/29353with a wavelength selective element in at least one light guide interferometer arm G02B6/29355Cascade arrangement of interferometers G02B6/29356Interference cavity within a single light guide G02B6/29358Multiple beam interferometer external to a light guide G02B6/29359Cavity formed by light guide ends G02B6/29361Interference filters G02B6/29362Serial cascade of filters or filtering operations G02B6/29364Cascading by a light guide path between filters or filtering operations G02B6/29365in a multireflection configuration G02B6/29367Zigzag path within a transparent optical block G02B6/29368Light guide comprising the filter G02B6/2937In line lens-filtering-lens devices, i.e. elements arranged along a line and mountable in a cylindrical package for compactness G02B6/29371operating principle based on material dispersion G02B6/29373utilising a bulk dispersive element G02B6/29374in an optical light guide G02B6/29376coupling light guides for controlling wavelength dispersion G02B6/29377controlling dispersion around 1550 nm G02B6/29379characterised by the function or use of the complete device G02B6/2938for multiplexing or demultiplexing, i.e. combining or separating wavelengths G02B6/29382including at least adding or dropping a signal G02B6/29383Adding and dropping G02B6/29385Channel monitoring G02B6/29386Interleaving or deinterleaving, i.e. separating or mixing subsets of optical signals G02B6/29388for lighting or use with non-coherent light G02B6/29389Bandpass filtering G02B6/29391Power equalisation of different channels G02B6/29392Controlling dispersion G02B6/29394Compensating wavelength dispersion G02B6/29395configurable G02B6/29397Polarisation insensitivity G02B6/29398Temperature insensitivity G02B6/30for use between fibre and thin-film device G02B6/305and having an integrated mode-size expanding section G02B6/32having lens focusing means positioned between opposed fibre ends G02B6/322and having centering means being part of the lens for the self-positioning of the lightguide at the focal point G02B6/325comprising a transparent member G02B6/327with angled interfaces to reduce reflections G02B6/34utilising prism or grating G02B6/35having switching means G02B6/3502involving direct waveguide displacement G02B6/3504Rotating, tilting or pivoting the waveguides, or with the waveguides describing a curved path G02B6/3506Translating the waveguides along the beam path G02B6/3508Lateral or transverse displacement of the whole waveguides G02B6/351involving stationary waveguides with moving interposed optical elements G02B6/3512the optical element being reflective G02B6/3514the reflective optical element moving along a line so as to translate into and out of the beam path G02B6/3516the reflective optical element moving along the beam path G02B6/3518the reflective optical element being an intrinsic part of a MEMS device G02B6/352the reflective optical element having a shaped reflective surface G02B6/3522the optical element enabling or impairing total internal reflection G02B6/3524the optical element being refractive G02B6/3526the optical element being a lens G02B6/3528the optical element being a prism G02B6/353the optical element being a shutter, baffle, beam dump or opaque element G02B6/3532the optical element being a wavelength independent filter or having spatially dependent transmission properties G02B6/3534the optical element being diffractive G02B6/3536involving evanescent coupling variation G02B6/3538based on displacement or deformation of a liquid G02B6/354Switching arrangements G02B6/3542Non-blocking switch G02B6/35442D constellations G02B6/3546NxM switch G02B6/35481xN switch G02B6/3551x2 switch G02B6/35521x1 switch G02B6/35543D constellations G02B6/3556NxM switch G02B6/35581xN switch G02B6/356in an optical cross-connect device G02B6/3562Switch of the bypass type, i.e. enabling a change of path in a network G02B6/3564Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details G02B6/3566involving bending a beam G02B6/3568characterised by the actuating force G02B6/357Electrostatic force G02B6/3572Magnetic force G02B6/3574Mechanical force G02B6/3576Temperature or heat actuation G02B6/3578Piezoelectric force G02B6/358Latching of the moving element G02B6/3582Housing means or package or arranging details of the switching elements G02B6/3584constructional details of an associated actuator having a MEMS construction G02B6/3586Control or adjustment details G02B6/3588of the processed beams G02B6/359of the position of the moving element itself during switching G02B6/3592Means for removing polarization dependence of the switching means G02B6/3594Characterised by additional functional means G02B6/3596With planar waveguide arrangement G02B6/3598Switching means directly located between an optoelectronic element and waveguides, including direct displacement of either the element or the waveguide G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means G02B6/3604Rotary joints allowing relative rotational movement between opposing fibre or fibre bundle ends G02B6/3608Fibre wiring boards, i.e. where fibres are embedded or attached in a pattern on or to a substrate G02B6/3612Wiring methods or machines G02B6/3616Holders, macro size fixtures for mechanically holding or positioning fibres G02B6/362Vacuum holders for optical elements G02B6/3624Fibre head G02B6/3628for mounting fibres to supporting carriers G02B6/3632characterised by the cross-sectional shape of the mechanical coupling means G02B6/3636the mechanical coupling means being grooves G02B6/364inverted grooves G02B6/3644the coupling means being through-holes or wall apertures G02B6/3648Supporting carriers of a micro-bench type G02B6/3652the additional structures being prepositioning mounting areas, allowing only movement in one dimension, e.g. grooves, trenches or vias in the micro-bench surface G02B6/3656the additional structures being micro-positioning, with micro-actuating elements for fine adjustment, or restricting movement, into two dimensions G02B6/366the additional structures allowing for adjustment or alignment in all dimensions, i.e. 3D micro-optics arrangements G02B6/36642D cross sectional arrangements of the fibres G02B6/3668with conversion in geometry of the cross section G02B6/3672with fibres arranged in a regular matrix array G02B6/3676Stacked arrangement G02B6/368with pitch conversion between input and output plane G02B6/3684characterised by the manufacturing process of surface profiling of the supporting carrier G02B6/3688using laser ablation G02B6/3692with surface micro-machining involving etching G02B6/3696by moulding G02B6/38having fibre to fibre mating means G02B6/3801Permanent connections G02B6/3802Assembly tools G02B6/3803Adjustment or alignment devices for alignment prior to splicing G02B6/3805with a fibre-supporting member inclined to the bottom surface of the alignment means G02B6/3806Semi-permanent connections G02B6/3807Dismountable connectors G02B6/3809without a ferrule embedding the fibre end G02B6/381of the ferrule type G02B6/3812having polarisation-maintaining light guides G02B6/3813for transmission of high energy beam G02B6/3814with cooling or heat dissipation means G02B6/3816for use under water, high pressure connectors G02B6/3817containing optical and electrical conductors G02B6/3818of a low-reflection-loss type G02B6/382with index-matching medium between light guides G02B6/3821with axial spring biasing or loading means G02B6/3822with beveled fibre ends G02B6/3823containing surplus lengths, internal fibre loops G02B6/3825with an intermediate part G02B6/3826characterised by form or shape G02B6/3827Wrap-back connectors G02B6/3829Bent or angled connectors G02B6/383Hermaphroditic connectors G02B6/3831comprising a keying element on the plug or adapter G02B6/3833Details of mounting fibres in ferrules; Assembly methods; Manufacture G02B6/3834Means for centering or aligning the light guide within the ferrule G02B6/3835using discs, bushings or the like G02B6/3837forwarding or threading methods of light guides into apertures of ferrule centering means G02B6/3838using grooves for light guides G02B6/3839for a plurality of light guides G02B6/3841using rods, balls for light guides G02B6/3842for a plurality of light guides G02B6/3843with auxiliary facilities for movably aligning or adjusting the fibre within its ferrule G02B6/3845ferrules comprising functional elements G02B6/3846with fibre stubs G02B6/3847with means preventing fibre end damage G02B6/3849using mechanical protective elements G02B6/385Accessories for testing or observation of connectors G02B6/3851Ferrules having keying or coding means G02B6/3853Lens inside the ferrule G02B6/3854Ferrules characterised by materials G02B6/3855characterised by the method of anchoring or fixing the fibre within the ferrule G02B6/3857Crimping G02B6/3858Clamping G02B6/3859Ferrules characterised by use of shape memory material [SMM] G02B6/3861Adhesive bonding G02B6/3862radially-compressed, longitudinally-split ferrules consisting of a pair of identical matching halves G02B6/3863fabricated by using polishing techniques G02B6/3865fabricated by using moulding techniques G02B6/3866Devices, tools or methods for cleaning connectors G02B6/3867comprising air venting holes G02B6/3869Mounting ferrules to connector body G02B6/387Connector plugs comprising two complementary members G02B6/3871Ferrule rotatable with respect to plug body G02B6/3873Connectors using guide surfaces for aligning ferrule ends G02B6/3874using tubes, sleeves to align ferrules G02B6/3875Floatingly supported sleeves G02B6/3877Split sleeves G02B6/3878comprising a plurality of ferrules, branching and break-out means G02B6/3879Linking of individual connector plugs to an overconnector G02B6/3881using grooves to align ferrule ends G02B6/3882using rods, pins or balls to align a pair of ferrule ends G02B6/3883using rods, pins or balls to align a plurality of pairs of ferrule ends G02B6/3885Multicore or multichannel optical connectors, i.e. one single ferrule containing more than one fibre G02B6/3886Magnetic means to align ferrule ends G02B6/3887Anchoring optical cables to connector housings G02B6/3889encapsulating the tensile strength members in a bonding agent G02B6/389characterised by the method of fastening connecting plugs and sockets G02B6/3891Bayonet type G02B6/3893Push-pull type G02B6/3894Screw-lock type G02B6/3895identification of connection G02B6/3897Connectors fixed to housings, casings, frames, circuit boards G02B6/3898Tools G02B6/40having fibre bundle mating means G02B6/403of the ferrule type, connecting a pair of ferrules G02B6/406of the ferrule type, connecting a plurality of pairs of ferrules G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements G02B6/4201Packages G02B6/4202for coupling an active element with fibres without intermediate optical elements G02B6/4203Optical features G02B6/4204the coupling comprising intermediate optical elements G02B6/4206Optical features G02B6/4207with optical elements reducing the sensitivity to optical feedback G02B6/4208using non-reciprocal elements or birefringent plates G02B6/4209Optical features G02B6/421the intermediate optical component consisting of a short length of fibre G02B6/4212the intermediate optical element being a coupling medium interposed therebetween G02B6/4213the intermediate optical elements being polarisation selective optical elements G02B6/4214the intermediate optical element having redirecting reflective means G02B6/4215the intermediate optical elements being wavelength selective optical elements G02B6/4216incorporating polarisation-maintaining fibres G02B6/4218Optical features G02B6/4219Mechanical fixtures for holding or positioning the elements relative to each other in the couplings; Alignment methods for the elements G02B6/422Active alignment G02B6/4221involving a visual detection of the position of the elements G02B6/4222by observing back-reflected light G02B6/4224using visual alignment markings G02B6/4225by a direct measurement of the degree of coupling G02B6/4226Positioning means for moving the elements into alignment G02B6/4227Active alignment methods G02B6/4228Passive alignment G02B6/423using guiding surfaces for the alignment G02B6/4231with intermediate elements G02B6/4232using the surface tension of fluid solder to align the elements G02B6/4233Active alignment along the optical axis and passive alignment perpendicular to the optical axis G02B6/4234Passive alignment along the optical axis and active alignment perpendicular to the optical axis G02B6/4236Fixing or mounting methods of the aligned elements G02B6/4237Welding G02B6/4238Soldering G02B6/4239Adhesive bonding; Encapsulation with polymer material G02B6/424Mounting of the optical light guide G02B6/4242Mounting of the optical light guide to the lid of the package G02B6/4243Mounting of the optical light guide into a groove G02B6/4244Mounting of the optical elements G02B6/4245Mounting of the opto-electronic elements G02B6/4246Bidirectionally operating package structures G02B6/4248Feed-through connections for the hermetical passage of fibres through a package wall G02B6/4249comprising arrays of active devices and fibres G02B6/425Optical features G02B6/4251Sealed packages G02B6/4253by embedding housing components in an adhesive or a polymer material G02B6/4254with an inert gas G02B6/4255Moulded or casted packages G02B6/4256Details of housings G02B6/4257having a supporting carrier or a mounting substrate or a mounting plate G02B6/4259of the transparent type G02B6/426mounting, engaging or coupling of the package to a board, a frame or a panel G02B6/4261Packages with mounting structures to be pluggable or detachable G02B6/4262characterised by the shape of the housing G02B6/4263of the transisitor outline [TO] can type G02B6/4265of the Butterfly or dual inline package [DIP] type G02B6/4266Thermal aspects, temperature control or temperature monitoring G02B6/4267Reduction of thermal stress G02B6/4268Cooling G02B6/4269with heat sinks or radiation fins G02B6/4271with thermo electric cooling G02B6/4272with mounting substrates of high thermal conductivity G02B6/4273with heat insulation means to thermally decouple or restrain the heat from spreading G02B6/4274Electrical aspects G02B6/4275Protection against electrostatic discharge [ESD] G02B6/4277Protection against electromagnetic interference [EMI] G02B6/4278related to pluggable or demountable opto-electronic or electronic elements G02B6/4279Radio frequency signal propagation aspects of the electrical connection, high frequency adaptations G02B6/428containing printed circuit boards [PCB] G02B6/4281the printed circuit boards being flexible G02B6/4283with electrical insulation means G02B6/4284of optical modules with disconnectable electrical connectors G02B6/4285Optical modules characterised by a connectorised pigtail G02B6/4286Optical modules with optical power monitoring G02B6/4287Optical modules with tapping or launching means through the surface of the waveguide G02B6/4289by inducing bending, microbending or macrobending, to the light guide G02B6/429by surface irregularities on the light guide G02B6/4291by accessing the evanescent field of the light guide G02B6/4292the light guide being disconnectable from the opto-electronic element G02B6/4293hybrid electrical and optical connections for transmitting electrical and optical signals G02B6/4295coupling with semiconductor devices activated by light through the light guide G02B6/4296coupling with sources of high radiant energy G02B6/4298coupling with non-coherent light sources and/or radiation detectors G02B6/43Arrangements comprising a plurality of opto-electronic elements and associated optical interconnections; Transmitting or receiving optical signals between chips, wafers or boards; Optical backplane assemblies G02B6/44Mechanical structures for providing tensile strength and external protection for fibres G02B6/4401Optical cables G02B6/4402with one single optical waveguide G02B6/4403with ribbon structure G02B6/4404Multi-podded G02B6/4405with longitudinally spaced waveguide clamping G02B6/4407with internal fluted support member G02B6/4408Groove structures in support members to decrease or harmonise transmission losses in ribbon cables G02B6/4409for ribbons G02B6/441built up from sub-bundles G02B6/4411Matrix structure G02B6/4413Helical structure G02B6/4414with internal serpentine waveguides G02B6/4415Cables for special applications G02B6/4416Heterogeneous cables G02B6/4417High voltage aspects G02B6/4419Preventing corona discharge G02B6/442Insulators G02B6/4421Insulators with helical structure of optical fibre G02B6/4422of the overhead type G02B6/4423Electro-corrosion preventing means G02B6/4425Suppression of galloping oscillation G02B6/4426Reducing drag caused by wired G02B6/4427Pressure resistant cables G02B6/4428Penetrator systems in pressure-resistant devices G02B6/4429Strengthening and protecting features G02B6/443Protective covering G02B6/4432with fibre reinforcements G02B6/4433Double reinforcement laying in straight line with optical transmission element G02B6/4434Central member to take up tensile loads G02B6/4435Corrugated mantle G02B6/4436Heat resistant G02B6/4438facilitating insertion by fluid drag in ducts or capillaries G02B6/4439Auxiliary devices G02B6/444Systems and boxes with surplus length G02B6/4441[Boxes] G02B6/4442Cap coupling boxes G02B6/4444Seals G02B6/4445Divided base plates G02B6/4446Cableboxes G02B6/4447with divided shells G02B6/4448electro-optic G02B6/445with lateral pivoting cover G02B6/4451underground connection boxes G02B6/4452Distribution frames G02B6/4453Cassettes G02B6/4454with splices G02B6/4455characterised by the way of extraction or insertion of the cassette in the distribution frame G02B6/4457Bobbins; Reels G02B6/4458coiled G02B6/4459Ducts; Conduits G02B6/446Desiccating features G02B6/4461articulated G02B6/4463Mechanical aspects of installing cables in ducts or the like G02B6/4464by fluid drag G02B6/4465Pulling eyes G02B6/4466for buildings G02B6/4467Repair sets G02B6/4469Security aspects G02B6/447locatable G02B6/4471terminating, fan-out, clamping, strain-relieving or like devices G02B6/4472Manifolds G02B6/4473Three-way systems G02B6/4475with provision for lateral branching G02B6/4476with heat-shrinkable elements G02B6/4477Strain-relieving to interior strengths element G02B6/4478Bending relief G02B6/4479Fabrication methods G02B6/448ribbon cables G02B6/4482code or colour marking G02B6/4483Injection or filling devices G02B6/4484with desired surplus length between fibres and protection feature G02B6/4485Installing in protective tubing by fluid drag G02B6/4486protective covering G02B6/4488with metallic tube G02B6/4489of central supporting member of lobe structure G02B6/449twisting G02B6/4491in a lobe structure G02B6/4492provided with hydrogen absorbing materials G02B6/4494provided with water blocking or hydrophobic materials G02B6/4495with provision in the cable protection G02B6/4496Freeze-prevention means G02B6/4497Devices for opening or removing the mantle G02B6/4498for ribbon cables G02B6/46Processes or apparatus adapted for installing optical fibres or optical cables G02B6/48Overhead installation G02B6/483Installation of aerial type G02B6/486by helical wrapping G02B6/50Underground or underwater installation Installation through tubing, conduits or ducts G02B6/502Installation methods in fluid conducts G02B6/504Installation in solid material G02B6/506Underwater installation G02B6/508Fixation devices in ducts for drawing cables G02B6/52using fluids G02B6/54using mechanical means