Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material


  • CPC
  • C23C14/00
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Sub Industries

C23C14/0005Separation of the coating from the substrate C23C14/001Coating on a liquid substrate C23C14/0015characterized by the colour of the layer C23C14/0021Reactive sputtering or evaporation C23C14/0026Activation or excitation of reactive gases outside the coating chamber C23C14/0031Bombardment of substrates by reactive ion beams C23C14/0036Reactive sputtering C23C14/0042Controlling partial pressure or flow rate of reactive or inert gases with feedback of measurements C23C14/0047Activation or excitation of reactive gases outside the coating chamber C23C14/0052Bombardment of substrates by reactive ion beams C23C14/0057using reactive gases other than O2, H2O, N2, NH3 or CH4 C23C14/0063characterised by means for introducing or removing gases C23C14/0068characterised by means for confinement of gases or sputtered material C23C14/0073by exposing the substrates to reactive gases intermittently C23C14/0078by moving the substrates between spatially separate sputtering and reaction stations C23C14/0084Producing gradient compositions C23C14/0089in metallic mode C23C14/0094in transition mode C23C14/02Pre-treatment of the material to be coated C23C14/021Cleaning or etching treatments C23C14/022by means of bombardment with energetic particles or radiation C23C14/024Deposition of sublayers C23C14/025Metallic sublayers C23C14/027Graded interfaces C23C14/028Physical treatment to alter the texture of the substrate surface C23C14/04Coating on selected surface areas C23C14/042using masks C23C14/044using masks to redistribute rather than totally prevent coating C23C14/046Coating cavities or hollow spaces C23C14/048using irradiation by energy or particles C23C14/06characterised by the coating material C23C14/0605Carbon C23C14/0611Diamond C23C14/0617AIII BV compounds, where A is Al, Ga, In or Tl and B is N, P, As, Sb or Bi C23C14/0623Sulfides, selenides or tellurides C23C14/0629of zinc, cadmium or mercury C23C14/0635Carbides C23C14/0641Nitrides C23C14/0647Boron nitride C23C14/0652Silicon nitride C23C14/0658Carbon nitride C23C14/0664Carbonitrides C23C14/067Borides C23C14/0676Oxynitrides C23C14/0682Silicides C23C14/0688Cermets C23C14/0694Halides C23C14/08Oxides C23C14/081of aluminium, magnesium or beryllium C23C14/082of alkaline earth metals C23C14/083of refractory metals or yttrium C23C14/085of iron group metals C23C14/086of zinc, germanium, cadmium, indium, tin, thallium or bismuth C23C14/087of copper or solid solutions thereof C23C14/088of the type ABO3 with A representing alkali, alkaline earth metal or Pb and B representing a refractory or rare earth metal C23C14/10Glass or silica C23C14/12Organic material C23C14/14Metallic material, boron or silicon C23C14/16on metallic substrates or on substrates of boron or silicon C23C14/165by cathodic sputtering C23C14/18on other inorganic substrates C23C14/185by cathodic sputtering C23C14/20on organic substrates C23C14/205by cathodic sputtering C23C14/22characterised by the process of coating C23C14/221Ion beam deposition C23C14/223specialy adapted for coating particles C23C14/225Oblique incidence of vaporised material on substrate C23C14/226in order to form films with columnar structure C23C14/228Gas flow assisted PVD deposition C23C14/24Vacuum evaporation C23C14/243Crucibles for source material C23C14/246Replenishment of source material C23C14/26by resistance or inductive heating of the source C23C14/28by wave energy or particle radiation C23C14/30by electron bombardment C23C14/32by explosion by evaporation and subsequent ionisation of the vapours C23C14/325Electric arc evaporation C23C14/34Sputtering C23C14/3407Cathode assembly for sputtering apparatus C23C14/3414Metallurgical or chemical aspects of target preparation C23C14/3421using heated targets C23C14/3428using liquid targets C23C14/3435Applying energy to the substrate during sputtering C23C14/3442using an ion beam C23C14/345using substrate bias C23C14/3457using other particles than noble gas ions C23C14/3464using more than one target C23C14/3471Introduction of auxiliary energy into the plasma C23C14/3478using electrons C23C14/3485using pulsed power to the target C23C14/3492Variation of parameters during sputtering C23C14/35by application of a magnetic field C23C14/351using a magnetic field in close vicinity to the substrate C23C14/352using more than one target C23C14/354Introduction of auxiliary energy into the plasma C23C14/355using electrons C23C14/357Microwaves C23C14/358Inductive energy C23C14/46by ion beam produced by an external ion source C23C14/48Ion implantation C23C14/50Substrate holders C23C14/505for rotation of the substrates C23C14/52Means for observation of the coating process C23C14/54Controlling or regulating the coating process C23C14/541Heating or cooling of the substrates C23C14/542Controlling the film thickness or evaporation rate C23C14/543using measurement on the vapor source C23C14/544using measurement in the gas phase C23C14/545using measurement on deposited material C23C14/546using crystal oscillators C23C14/547using optical methods C23C14/548Controlling the composition C23C14/56Apparatus specially adapted for continuous coating Arrangements for maintaining the vacuum C23C14/562for coating elongated substrates C23C14/564Means for minimising impurities in the coating chamber such as dust, moisture, residual gases C23C14/566using a load-lock chamber C23C14/568Transferring the substrates through a series of coating stations C23C14/58After-treatment C23C14/5806Thermal treatment C23C14/5813using lasers C23C14/582using electron bombardment C23C14/5826Plasma treatment C23C14/5833Ion beam bombardment C23C14/584Non-reactive treatment C23C14/5846Reactive treatment C23C14/5853Oxidation C23C14/586Nitriding C23C14/5866Treatment with sulfur, selenium or tellurium C23C14/5873Removal of material C23C14/588by mechanical treatment C23C14/5886Mechanical treatment C23C14/5893Mixing of deposited material